Outline of physical science
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Physical science is an encompassing term for the branches of natural science and science that study non-living systems, in contrast to the biological sciences. However, the term "physical" creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena.
Basic principles of the physical sciences
The foundations of the physical sciences rests upon key concepts and theories, each of which explains and/or models a particular aspect of the behaviour of nature.
Basic principles of astronomy
- The life and characteristics of stars and galaxies
- Origins of the universe. Physical science uses the Big Bang theory as the commonly accepted scientific theory of the origin of the universe
- A heliocentric solar system. Ancient and primitive cultures saw the earth as the centre of the solar system or universe ( geocentrism). In the 16th century, Nicolaus Copernicus advanced the ideas of heliocentrism, recognizing the sun as the centre of the solar system.
- The structure of the solar system, planets, comets, asteroids, and meteors
- The shape and structure of Earth (roughly spherical, see also Spherical Earth)
- Earth in the Solar System
- Time measurement
- The composition and features of the Moon
- Interactions of the Earth and Moon
(Note: Astronomy should not be confused with astrology, which assumes that people's destiny and human affairs in general are correlated to the apparent positions of astronomical objects in the sky -- although the two fields share a common origin, they are quite different; astronomers embrace the scientific method, while astrologers do not.)
Basic principles of chemistry
Chemistry is the science of matter mainly at the micro-level. Chemistry can be called "the central science" because it connects the other natural sciences, such as astronomy, physics, material science, biology, and geology. Its studies include the following:
- Atomic theory
- Water and its properties
- Chemical elements, chemical reactions, and energy transformations
- Nuclear chemistry
- The nature of the atomic nucleus
- Characterization of radioactive decay, originally discovered by Henri Becquerel
- Organic chemistry, considered to have started in 1828 with the synthesis of urea by Friedrich Woehler
- Hydrocarbon derivatives
- Organic chemistry functional groups
Basic principles of earth science
- Rocks and minerals
- The water cycle and the process of transpiration
- Freshwater, surface water, groundwater
- Soil science
- Soil fertility
- Earth's tectonic structure
- Geomorphology and geophysics
- Characteristics and formation of fossils
- Atmosphere of earth
- Meteorology, weather, climatology, and climate
Basic principles of physics
Physics is the "fundamental science" because the other natural sciences (biology, chemistry, geology, etc.) deal with systems that obey the laws of physics. The physical laws of matter, energy, and the forces of nature govern the interactions between particles (such as molecules, atoms, or subatomic particles). Some basic principles of physics are:
- Describing and measuring motion
- The theory of gravity
- Energy, work, and power
- Energy forms
- Energy conservation, conversion, and transfer.
- Energy sources
- Kinetic Molecular Theory
- The principles of waves and sound
- The principles of electricity, magnetism, and electromagnetism
- The principles, sources, and properties of light
Notable physical scientists
- Abu Rayhan al-Biruni - a Persian scientist who is regarded as the father of geodesy, has been described as the "first anthropologist", and is considered one of the earliest geologists.
- Alhazen - an Iraqi scientist who wrote the Book of Optics, is regarded as the father of optics and the pioneer of the scientific method, and has been described as the "first scientist".
- Archimedes - a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. He is considered to be the first mathematical physicist on record. He established the laws of statics, buoyancy, and centre of gravity.
- Aristotle - the last of the three great influential ancient Greek philosophers, although not considered to be a scientist by today's standards, nevertheless, he influenced the development of the later scientific method by espousing the view that knowledge should be based on empiricism instead of intuition or faith.
- Aryabhata - Aryabhata was the first in the line of brilliant mathematician-astronomers of classical Indian mathematics, whose major work was the Aryabhatiya and the Aryabhatta-siddhanta. Aryabhatiya presented a number of innovations in mathematics and astronomy in verse form, which were influential for many centuries.
- Bacon, Francis - an Elizabethan philosopher, is credited with the philosophical advocation for the Baconian method, an early forerunner of the scientific method.
- Boyle, Robert - an Irish natural philosopher, is regarded as the " father of modern chemistry" due to his distinction between chemistry and alchemy. His namesake is Boyle's Law of an ideal gas, which he discovered, but his contributions to physical science include the definition of a chemical element, the propagation of sound, among others.
- Copernicus, Nicolaus - a Polish mathematician and economist, is considered by many to be the " father of modern astronomy" due to his detailed explanation of the heliocentric (Sun-centered) solar system.
- Curie, Marie (maiden name: Sklodowska) - a Polish-born French chemist, was the first female Nobel laureate, the first two-time Nobel laureate, and one of only two individuals to receive the Nobel prize in two different fields. She and her husband, Pierre Curie discovered the two elements Polonium and Radium.
- Einstein, Albert - a theoretical physicist, is widely regarded as the greatest scientist of the 20th century. He proposed the theory of relativity and was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize for Physics, among other accomplishments.
- Euler, Leonhard - Swiss mathematician and physicist, considered to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all times. His contributions to science includes the Euler-Bournoulli beam equation and Euler equations.
- Galilei, Galileo - an astronomer and physicist, is considered the " father of modern physics," " father of modern science", and " father of science" due, in large part, to his conflict with the Roman Catholic Church over the authority of science. However, he has equally impressive scientific contributions to the fields of mechanics, astronomy, and mathematical physics.
- Geber - an Arab chemist regarded as the father of chemistry, due to his introduction of an experimental method in the field, and for freeing it from superstition and turning it into a science.
- Hutton, James - a Scottish geologist, is considered to be the "father of modern geology," for his formulation of uniformitarianism, that the same geological processes operating today operated in the distant past. Based upon that assumption, he maintained that the age of the earth must be much older than a few thousand years.
- Newton, Sir Isaac - a scientist and mathematician, is most renowned for his description of the laws of motion and law of universal gravitation.
- Pauling, Linus - an American quantum chemist and biochemist, widely regarded as the premier chemist of the twentieth century. A pioneer in the application of quantum mechanics to chemistry, and one of the founders of molecular biology.
- Thales of Miletus - a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, is considered to be the father of science becaused he first encouraged naturalistic explanations of the world, without the supernatural.