Arranging a Wikipedia selection for schools in the developing world without internet was an initiative by SOS Children. Sponsor a child to make a real difference.
|Nickname(s): Rock City|
|Admin. division||Mwanza Region|
|• Type||City Council|
|Elevation||3,753 ft (1,144 m)|
|Time zone||GMT + 3|
Mwanza is the second largest city in Tanzania. It is located in the Northwest of the country and is a southern port of Lake Victoria. It is the capital of the surrounding Mwanza Region. The region is located between latitude 10 30' and 30 south of the equator. Longitudinally the region is located between 310 45' and 340 10' east of Greenwich. Regions bordering the Mwanza Region are Kagera to the west, Shinyanga to the south and southeast. The northeast borders the Serengeti and Mara Region. The northern part of Mwanza is surrounded by Lake Victoria which separates the region from the neighbouring countries of Uganda and Kenya.
The Mwanza Region is relatively small and occupies merely 2.3% of the total land area of the Tanzania mainland. It belongs to the ethnic region Basukuma [English: Sukumaland]. According to a 2002 census, the population was 476,646, making Mwanza the second largest city in Tanzania, after Dar es Salaam. It is located at an altitude of 1,140 metres above sea level.
Mwanza Region occupies a total of 35,187 km2., out of this area 20,095 km2. is dry land and 15,092 km2. is covered by Lake Victoria. Thus 43% of the region’s surface area is water.
Before the colonial era Mwanza Region was under the Sukuma, Kerewe, Kara and Zinza empires. When the Germans colonized Tanganyika, Mwanza became one of the districts in their territory. After the First World War, East Africa came under the supervision of UN peacekeepers.
The British established provincial leadership in Tanganyika and the Mwanza Region became one of the districts of the Lake Province while Biharamlo, Bukoba, Maswa, Shinyanga, Musoma and Kwimba were the other districts of the province. Later on the Lake Province was divided into the Lake Province and the Western Zone. After independence, all the provinces were turned into official regions. Mwanza Region remained a part of the Lake Region until 1963 when it was officially given the status of a region.
The Sukuma dominate by constituting over 90 percent of the population.Apart from the Sukuma other ethnic groups are the Zinza, Haya, Sumbwa, Nyamwezi, Luo, Kurya, Jita and Kerewe. These groups constitute in various small proportions. They are mainly in the Mwanza city area. The Sumbwa and Zinza are mostly found in Geita and Sengerema districts respectively. National policy gives very little importance to ethnic grouping and information related to this issue is difficult to come by.
The people of Mwanza are God fearing. They have different faiths ranging from traditional practices to modern religion and these includes: Hindu, Muslim, Anglican, Roman Catholic, African Inland Church, Lutheran, Tanzania Mennonite, Mwanza Christian Miracle, Assemblies of God, Pentecostal Evangelical, Swaminarayan, Seventh Day Adventist etc
The economy in Mwanza Region is dominated by smallholder agriculture employing about 85 per cent of the region’s population and complemented by an expanding fisheries sector.
The region has traditionally been one of Tanzania’s main producing area for cotton. For the past two decades cotton production has declined basically due to low profitability and inefficient marketing arrangements. It is believed that fisheries activities in the region lead in terms of foreign exchange earning contribution to the region’s economy. Commercial fishing is carried out by big fishing companies using modern fishing gear and vessels. Agriculture takes second position followed by mining in recent days. The region holds a large proportion of the country’s livestock; about 13 percent (District Integrated Agricultural Survey, 1998/99 - National Report, February 2000). The region’s rural population is relatively poor and conditions are worsening due to high population density and consequent land shortage, exacerbated by erratic rainfall patterns in many parts of the region. Major food crops in the region are maize, cassava, sorghum, millet, sweet potatoes and legumes (beans/peas). Maize, cassava and sweet potatoes constitute about 71 per cent of all food crops grown in the region. The region in most times is unable to feed itself; food has to be imported from other regions. Surplus production realized in Geita and some parts of Sengerema fail to bridge the food gap. Paddy and maize play a dual role in being food crops, which can also be sold if a surplus is generated or if cash is needed urgently. Cotton and paddy have both been major cash crops in the region over the past 50–60 years.
GDP and Per Capita Income
The economic performance trend of the Mwanza region over the last six years from 1995–2000 reveals some economic growth. At the end of 1995 the regional Gross Domestic product (GDP) was TShs 203,939 million at current prices. By the year ending 2000 it had increased to Tshs 643,595 million at current prices, an increase by 215 per cent.
Average individual annual income (Per Capita Income) in Mwanza region has improved greatly over the period of six years (from 1995–2000). In terms of Tanzanian shillings the positive change has been 100 percent while in terms of USA Dollars this has been 44 percent growth change. Though this increase would appear satisfactory, the region in this respect ranked 8th among other regions in mainland Tanzania during the year 2000.
Commerce and Finance
Commerce is flourishing economic activity with employment of over 7700 people. Mwanza residents who are engaged in various retail and wholesale trade within the formal and informal sector. The sector is becoming popular to most of the residents;almost everybody has some sort of a small retail shop.There are also about 215 intoxicated liquor dealers and about 65 local dealers in the Region. Among these major-trading entities are state owned corporations such as Tanzania Breweries Ltd, Agricultural, Building, Hardware and Household Supplies Co Ltd.There is much room for development and growth of Mwanza’s international export and import industry.There are few exporters mainly exporting fish and fish products, rice, scrap metal and timber to various countries.Importation is of variety of products that include textile goods processed foods stuffs beverages, medicines, spare parts, building materials, hardware, electrical goods and machinery.
The main country source of Mwanza's imports is Kenya, Uganda, Taiwan, China, U.K, Korea, India,Democratic Republic of Congo and Belgium.The economic aid to this international import/export industry is well developed in Mwanza. Mwanza is home for several major banking institutions and zonal office for the National Insurance Corporation Mwanza has surplus of adequate and privately owned warehouses. Transportation in Mwanza is comprehensive across air, water and land.
Commerce goes hand in hand with finance. People need to be financed, deposit, draw etc their finances in the financial institutions. Due to Mwanza’s strategic geographical position and the favorable facilities, the region houses the major financial institutions of Tanzania. The Central Bank of Tanzania (BOT) assists the banking transactions of other banks. We have different commercial banks such as CRDB, The National Micro Finance Bank (NMB), National Bureau de Change, Exim bank, Standard Chattered bank, Boa bank, Stanbank, Barclays bank, Diamond trust bank, National Bank of Commerce (1997) Ltd, The Tanzania Post Bank just to mention a few, there are also other financial institutions in the region such as Pride, Finca etc which offer some loans to bustup the trade in the region. The banks have penetrated to the interiors at least each district has a bank branch. The banks in the region offer various services.
The geography of Mwanza and Tanzania at large, its size, diversity and dispersion give roads a special position in integration of the region's economy and communication in general. In particular roads serve rural areas where most of residents live more effectively than any other mode of transport.
National networks (under the Ministry of Works) face lack of sufficient fund for rehabilitation and upgrading due to increased traffic (e.g. the proposed Urgent Roads Rehabilitation Programme - URRP) and for routine maintenance, low capacity' of the local construction industry and low participation of the private sector.
However, the Government has rationalised and streamlined the institutional framework for management of the road sector so as to enhance efficiency, effectiveness and accountability. An autonomous executive agency, the Tanzania Roads Agency (TANROADS), responsible for the management of trunk road construction, rehabilitation and maintenance has been established. A National Road Board guides its activities with representation from the private sector/road users and the Government. The Government has also established a Road Fund whose funding is ring-fenced field user charge as the main source of finance for road maintenance. The local authorities under the Ministry of Regional Administration and Local Government are responsible for the district, urban and feeder roads (the local roads network) for opening up existing and potential rural productive areas for agriculture, small-scale mining and rural tourism.
The Tanzania railway cooperation (TRC) operates in some parts of the region. The Corporation TRC has a line running from Mwanza to Dar es Salaam via some places in the Mwanza district and Kwimba. The second branch runs from Tabora to Mwanza port on Lake Victoria, also providing transportation services to north and north-western part of the country including landlocked Uganda. The Line connects the region with the rest of regions such as Shinyanga, Tabora, Dodoma, Singida, Morogoro, Coastal region and Dar es Salaam. Tanzania railway cooperation (TRC) is now privatised to Tanzania Railway Limited (TRL).
The lake transport is managed by the Marine Division of the Tanzania Railway Corporation (TRC). There are freight cargo and passenger transport services on lake Victoria (linking Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda). There are regular ferries from Mwanza to Sengerema.
Tanzania has three international airports in Dar es Salaam, Kilimanjaro and Zanzibar. In addition there are aerodromes and airstrips spread all over the country.
The national airline, Air Tanzania Corporation Limited (ATCl) is the major provider of domestic air travel linking all major towns including Mwanza in the country. Private companies like Precision Air are also operating. Mwanza is also serviced by private charter companies like Auric Air which provides a link to small airstrips and towns in the region. ATCl has also services to neighbouring countries and the Middle East. There are international airlines operating flights in and out of Tanzania with daily flights to Europe, India, the Middle East and Southern Africa. Mwanza airport receives a number of planes each day. The airlines operating in the region include Air Tanzania (ATC)and Precision Air.
Apart from the city centre each district centre has a small size airport. In places like Geita the mining companies have their private planes and airports.
Mwanza is served by Mwanza Airport (IATA code MWZ, IACO code HTMW)
Telecommunication facilities are available in some parts of the region and are linked to the world through Dar es Salaam. Telecommunications services have continued improving due to efforts of the Tanzania Telecommunications Company (TTCL) and participation of private companies, including VODACOM, TIGO, TTCL MOBILE, ZANTEL, and ZAIN; Some of these companies have not penetrated much in the interior they are still in the city and in some districts. Other forms of telecommunications which have also been installed and developed particularly FAX communication which is more in demand than Telex.
Is one of the fast growing technology in the region. The city is mushroomed with a number of Internet cafes, and a reasonable number of user increases day to day especially the young people. The resident are fond of the Internet services for what they say the services are faster, location independent, reliable and user friendlier. Most of the people uses the Internet services for mails, and few uses for referential and study purposes.
The Internet providers like Auvionics and cats-net are least preferred between the people. However growing speeds of Internet provided by the natioanl telecommunication services such as TTCL and Z-Connect as much preferred.
In the districts the services are still down in few offices we can access the Internet. The mode used to access the Internet in such places is using dial-up and wireless technology. Some deliberate strategies are needed to equip the rural people with this kind of services so as to empower them.
About 85 percent of Mwanza regional population depends on agriculture for their livelihood. In general, crop rotation levels per unit area are very low. This low level has been explained by agricultural experts to due to be the perpetual use of out-dated, inferior agricultural implements, soil exhaustion and soil infertility. In terms of land use, about 4,200 km2. of total land or about 21 percent is under small holder cultivation.
Agriculture, the most important economic activity in the region, provides food for the fast growing population, raw materials for the agro-industries, foreign exchange for the country and lastly employment for the majority of the rural population. The prime objective of the sector in the region is to raise per capita agricultural out-put so as to achieve regional self sufficiency in food and an adequate surplus of saleable crops for export, industry and interregional trade. However, in recent years, Mwanza region has failed in its goal of self sufficiency in food production. Great shortage of food has been experienced and external sources had to be sought to supplement the internally generated food supply. Given an increasing population dependent on agriculture for livelihood on a constant area of land, the general strategy for meeting food self-sufficiency in the region is intensification of farming practices. In addition, more agricultural production could be achieved by engaging in small irrigation farming. This could be done through rain water harvesting or exploitation of the Lake waters. Attitudes of small farmers and the authorities in the region should change to agricultural irrigation instead of rainfed agriculture which on many occasions has let down farmers.
Major food crops produced in the region are: Maize, Paddy, millet/sorghum, cassava, sweet potatoes and chickpeas. Cotton is the only cash crop.
One major occupation of the inhabitants along the shores of Lake Victoria in Mwanza region is fishing. Lake Victoria provides freshwater fishing potential for the region. It has been referred earlier that the water area for Mwanza region is 15,092 km2. Representing 43 percent of the total area of the region. The fishery resource of the Lake are exploited by an estimated 13,000 artisan fishermen, using about 2,300 planked boats and dug-out canoes.
Principal fish caught are the Nile perch (Latesniloticus) and Dagaa (Rastrineobola argentius). Other important species include tilapia, African lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus) and catfish (Clarias gariepinus). It is only in recent years that the great potential of the Lake is being fully realised through the establishment of organised fish marketing and processing. Annual fish harvests of 200,000 tons can be achieved without endangering the fish population. Recorded figures for 1992 was 93,327 and recorded weight in 1993 was over 129,000 tons, but declined to 74,133.8 tons in 1994 and 75,086.7 tons in 1995 and to 80,083 in 1996.
The fishing industry is developing very fast and its potential in offering gainful employment is getting realised particularly after the establishment of fish fillet factories in the region. Fishing activities are mainly carried out in areas along the shores of Lake Victoria through traditional methods. Commercial fishing is carried out by big companies using modern fishing gear and vessels.
Not all the fish caught is consumed locally, the surplus is exported to countries like Zaire, Rwanda and Burundi. In recent years, fish fillet processed in the region are exported to European Union countries and the Far East countries such as Japan and Australia. The fishery industry is one of the major contributors to the region’s GDP and it is increasing its share. Total fish weight of 80,083 tons valued at Tshs.22,665,806,800 was recorded and out of this a total of 9,544.6 tons of processed fish fillet valued at Tshs.5,114,402,292 was exported.
Compaines like Vic Fish Ltd.(Bahari Bounty)play a large role in running the local goverement. They also contribute to people by building parks and other services.
One of the Largest processing Plant, M/s Tanzania Fish Processors limited, provides enough employment in lake & supports local peoples,Developing young Tanzanians in fisheries line very silently.
Although for the foreseeable future livestock husbandry, agriculture and fishing will remain the sectors offering the greatest development potentials to Mwanza region, an increasingly important role must be assigned to industrial activity as a vehicle of economic growth. It is through industrial development in the region that the ever increasing number of unemployed youths in the region could gain employment opportunities. Industrial establishments possible are those geared towards processing locally produced agricultural, fishing and livestock raw materials.
With over 1.6 million livestock units in the region, the livestock sector could have contributed much to the region’s development. In general the potential of this sector is far from being fully realized. Livestock keeping in Mwanza region is an important economic activity for a large part of the rural population. The rural community in the region relies on livestock to fulfill their social as well as their economic needs.
Despite its potential, Mwanza region does not have a particularly high level of economic performance when measured by per capita gross regional product.
It is clearly evident that Mwanza region has lost most of its tree cover through extensive clearing of forest for agricultural production, eradication of tsetse flies to pave way for livestock grazing, and the cutting of trees for timber, poles and firewood without replenishment. Consequently the destruction of these forests has left the regions land area with less than 10 percent forest cover. The existing natural forests at present are in Geita and Sengerema districts.
The low forest cover in the region has led to acute shortage of forest products and environmental degradation, particularly soil erosion. Forest destruction in some water catchment areas has resulted in the drying up of wells during the dry season. A few examples to confirm this fact are: Nyang’wale and Msalala in Geita, Busega and Kivukoni in Magu, Mwamashimba in Kwimba and Nyanchenche in Sengerema districts.
Mwanza is one of the unique destinations in Tanzania that has yet to be discovered by many. It is a land of many wonders hubbing an unparalleled diversity of fauna, flora and many natural features. The wonders of rockies, the scenery, topography and very friendly people harbour the growth of excellent Cultural tourism beach holidays, game hunting, infrastructural ventures ,historical and archaeological ventures – and certainly the best wildlife photographic safaris on the continent. The tourism industry (if at all is properly managed) provides excellent investment opportunities in construction and management of hotels, lodges and restaurants, infrastructure ventures, aviation projects, training institutions, tour operations, travel agencies and marketing organisations. According to the national industry’s mission statement that forms the basis of the tourism policy is to develop sustainable quality tourism that is ecologically friendly to the conservation and restoration of the environment and its people’s culture. In so doing the industry seeks to maximise the net gains that emanate from the various tourism activities. It is for this reason that the Government is now highly concerned with the improvement of the infrastructure quality and diversity, ease of destination entry formalities, relaxation of foreign exchange regulations and controls, revision of applicable taxes and maintenance of peace, stability and security. As a stimulant, the private sector is increasingly investing in the various tourist plants, improvement of destination access from major sources and within marketing promotion and training of the human resource.Of course the government has a lot to do in Mwanza so as to stimulate more tourists and investors in the tourist industry , the infrastructure in general is still poor to support the activities. Tourist Attractions in Mwanza:
- The lake itself and naturally arranged rocks set on top of each other
- Ukerewe Island and Rubondo, which has a National Park, with diverse natural attractions, rich in birds and a wonderful beach
- It is near several game reserves such as Biharamulo, Bugiri, Rumanyika Game Reserve. Maswa and the Serengeti National Park
- It is an historical place where the earliest 18th century explorers visited in the research to find the source of River Nile
- The historical museums in the Region such as Halwego Handebezyo (in Ukerewe) and Bujora (in Mwanza)
The Bujora Cultural Centre and Sukuma Museum in Kisesa, are historical institutions founded for the education and support of Sukuma culture. The arts of the Sukuma culture are among the richest in East Africa. As the Sukuma people are the largest cultural group in Tanzania, the Sukuma culture is dispersed throughout the country. The heart of Usukuma is in the Lake Zone of Mwanza, Shinyanga and the Mara regions where the legacy of a rich art tradition is now maintained.
Saa Nane Island,meaning "eight o'clock island", has a large variety of reptiles. Hippo, zebra and wildebeest and some caged animals are found within the wildlife sanctuary. This reserve is literally a 95-acre outdoor zoo.
Birdwatchers will enjoy the scenery on Saa Nane while nature lovers can venture onto the rock formations that appear out of the grassy landscape.
Rubondo Island National Park boasts a unique diversity of flora and fauna. Only here can the visitor be sure of seeing Sitatunga, also small gangs of chimpanzees can sometimes be seen. Other animals seen include hippo, otters, bushbuck and velvet monkeys. Rarer sightings are colobus, genet, marsh mongoose, suni antelope and elephant.
Rubondo is a paradise for bird lovers, with nearly 400 species documented on the island. The wide varieties of invertebrates and diversity of plant species makes Rubondo a fascinating place for naturalists.
The dancing stones of Butimba Ukara Mwanza. The stone dance when villagers sing to them. The stones are sacred to the villagers.
The Serengeti region encompasses the Serengeti National Park itself, the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Maswa Game Reserve, the Loliondo, Grumeti and Ikorongo Controlled Areas and the Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya. Over 90,000 tourists visit the Park each year.
Two World Heritage Sites and two Biosphere Reserves have been established within the 30,000 km² region. Its unique ecosystem has inspired writers from Ernest Hemingway to Peter Mattheissen, filmmakers like Hugo von Lawick and Alan Root as well as numerous photographers and scientists - many of which have put their works at our disposal to create this website.
The Serengeti ecosystem is one of the oldest on earth. The essential features of climate, vegetation and fauna have barely changed in the past million years. Early man himself made an appearance in Olduvai Gorge about two million years ago. Some patterns of life, death, adaptation and migration are as old as the hills themselves.
It is the migration for which Serengeti is perhaps most famous. Over a million wildebeest and about 200,000 zebras flow south from the northern hills to the southern plains for the short rains every October and November, and then swirl west and north after the long rains in April, May and June. So strong is the ancient instinct to move that no drought, gorge or crocodile infested river can hold them back.
The Wildebeest travel through a variety of parks, reserves and protected areas and through a variety of habitat. Join us to explore the different forms of vegetation and landscapes of the Serengeti ecosystem and meet some of their most fascinating inhabitants.
It is increasingly becoming fashionable for parents to put children through pre-schools prior to their joining primary school education. This way children are prepared for the world of competition in primary education and the life beyond. Normally, children who have been put through pre-schools have an edge over their peers.
Pre-schools give instruction to children of the age group of 5 to 6 years. Parents who wish to prepare their 3 to 4 years old children for pre-schools can send them to daycare centres where the principal purpose is not literary or numeracy but to predispose them for pre-school education.
The regional average population per pre-school was 4,789 to one in 2001. Misungwi held the best ratio of 3,150 to one while the worst ratios were with Kwimba and Magu at 6,327 to one and 6,075 to one respectively. The regions of Morogoro and Dodoma for that year had 5,064 and 3,528 average population per pre-school. Thus Mwanza had worse coverage than either Dodoma or Morogoro.
The region had a total of 717 pre-schools of which 596 were public. The private sector owned 121 pre-schools or 16.9% of the total. Mwanza City districts had more than two times as many private pre-schools as there were public pre-schools. Kwimba had a fifty percent private ownership. The district with the lowest ratio of private pre-schools was Geita at 2%.
The right to primary school education belongs to every school age child in the country. But government budgetary constraints have made 100 percent coverage impossible. In the early 1970’s the government’s policy of Universal Primary Education (U.P.E) boosted up dramatically the enrollment and played a big role in reducing illiteracy. Economic hardships between the 1980’s and the year 2001 restricted significant increases in the Gross Enrolment Rate. In fact although the overall enrolment increased year after year it was unable to catch up with population increases.
With effect from July 2001 the Primary Education Development Programme (PEDP) was introduced. The programme’s overall target is to make primary education available to every Tanzanian child of the school going age in the period of a few years. The month of January 2002 saw efforts being made to enroll all 7 to 10 year olds into Std. I.
There were 476 primary schools in the region in 1974. These had increased by 89 percent to 902 by the year 2002. the district with the smallest increase was Ukerewe at 29 percent followed by Magu at 37 percent. All the other districts made impressive increases in the number of schools. Mwanza City districts, uncharacteristically for an urban area, lead by increasing its schools by 265 percent. Geita and Sengerema combined had a 128 percent increase. Kwimba and Misungwi made together a 94 percent increase.
Transition to Secondary School Education
In the year 2000, out of 35,644 Std VII candidates 32,387 or 90.9 percent were examined. Of those examined 3,125 or 9.6 percent were selected for Form I in public schools. The districts which did well were Mwanza City at 19.2 percent and Kwimba at 14.4 percent selection. The two districts which did the worst were Ukerewe and Misungwi respectively at 5.6 percent and 6.2 percent selection. Of 16,747 boys 1,599 or 9.5 percent were selected. Of 15,640 girls examined 1,526 or 9.8 percent were selected. The selection was slightly in favour of girls.
From 1991 to 2000 the number of examinees in the region increased from 28,802 to 32,387 and the number of selectees increased from 1,304 to 3,125. The number of examinees increased by 12 percent but the number of selectees improved even more to reach an increase of 140 percent. In 1991 girls made up 43 percent of all selectees. By the year 2000 girls selected constituted 49 percent. Overall the yield of selectees from the pool of examinees increased from 5 percent to 10 percent.
Vocational training is not only important in supplying the skills which attract employment opportunities it also an investment which can contribute significantly to national and for that matter regional GDP even if via self employment in the informal sector.
As of the year 2000 the region had 25 VETA recognised Vocational Training Centres which supplied the following range of vocational skills:
- Carpentry and joinery
- English language
- Shoe making
- Machinery Fitting
- M/V Mechanics
- Electrical Installation
- Plumbing and Pipe
- Painting and Sign Writing
- Ginnery Fitting
- Basic Health
- First Aid
- Village midwifery
St. Augustine University of Tanzania (SAUT) is a secular non-profit, private institution of higher learning founded by the Catholic Bishops of Tanzania in 1998, accredited in 2002. SAUT is committed to being a centre of excellence through education, research and community service and currently has 2,649 students with an anticipated 3,500 students for the 2007/08 academic year. The University attracts students from Tanzania and elsewhere; particularly the countries of East and Central Africa: Kenya, Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia, Burundi, Malawi and Zambia. SAUT admits students of all nationalities and religious affiliations. SAUT is located in Nyegezi Mwanza.
Weill Bugando University College of Health Sciences (WBUCHS) is an Institute of Higher Education of the Catholic Church in Tanzania dedicated to following the highest standards in modern, medical training for the benefit of all the people of Africa. The institute is Located on the hills of Bugando Mwanza.
College of Business Education (CBE) is an institution aimed at training highly competent and practice-oriented professionals in Procurement and Supply Management, Business Administration, Metrology, Accountancy, Marketing, and related fields at the Certificate, Diploma, Advanced Diploma, Postgraduate Diploma and Professional degree levels; and to undertake relevant Basic and Applied Research as well as providing Consultancy and Advisory services to the public. It is located at Kenyatta - Station road junction in Mwanza.
The Nyegezi Social Training Centre was founded in 1960 and is located 10 km south of Mwanza. Specializing in journalism, accounting, and community development, the Nyegezi Social Training Centre has educated personnel to undertake positions of leadership in the countries of East and Central Africa that were able to achieve their independence in the years since its founding. Nyegezi has sent more than 2,300 graduates into the services of government, business, the media and other institutions.
A healthy population is a population that can participate in their country’s development efforts. Tanzania being a developing country need more than anything else a good health services delivery system to ensure a healthy population. To this end the government has opted for the cut and dried western medicine approach, although, the population still has access to traditional medicine as an alternative.
Primary health care is the basic strategy of a policy which aims at making available the services of this system to every citizen who is in need. This way the government strives to provide an infrastructure which at village level is represented by Village Health Workers and trained Traditional Birth Attendants. The dispensary as a frontline facility is equipped and staffed to take care of some 90% of all cases in need of curative medicine. The dispensary is backed by a referral hierarchy of health centres and hospitals to take care of the remaining 10% which normally need more skilled health care, more sophisticated equipment and medical supplies.
The dispensary is the frontline facility in the health care system. The strategic location and coverage of dispensaries is the first step towards the realization of an adequate health facility network.
During the intervening period there had been an overall drop in the numbers especially in Geita district. Magu had a significance increase from 39 to 51 and Geita’s drop was from 55 to 40. Regionwise, the drop was from 318 to 314 dispensaries. The private sector accounted for 36.5% of all dispensaries in the region in 1995.
While the drop in the numbers of dispensaries was marginal the drop in coverage was significant at 23%. Geita district whose coverage for 1995 was the worst at 10,160 people per dispensary registered the biggest percentage drop at 71%. Geita’s new low was 17,400 people per dispensary. The urban districts of Mwanza City had the best coverage in both years though even here a drop was registered from 3,600 to 5,000. Of the rural districts, Ukerewe had the best coverage in 1995 at 7,100 to 1 while in 2001 the best coverage was held by Magu at 8,000 to 1. In fact Magu improved its coverage from 9,200 to 8,000. All other districts showed a drop in cover. The regional average deteriorated from 7,400 to 9,100 per dispensary.
Dispensaries are the first level of health care facility. Their strategic distribution ensure that all health problems are taken care of at the village level. Mother and Child Health Services are also attached to dispensaries.
Mbeya region has 268 dispensaries of which 186 are public, 51 are owned by voluntary agencies or parastatal organisations and 32 are privately owned.
H.I.V/AIDS is not only a major threat to the health of the region’s population but also to the economic and social well-being of the people. Since no cure or vaccine has yet to be found, prevention is the only course of action left to check the spread of this scourge. When 1996 and 2001 statistics are compared, it is clear that the rate of H.I.V. infection is serious. The percentage of H.I.V. positive cases among family donors was 7.9 in 1996 and 6.9 in 2001.
Regionwise the AIDS case rate for the year 1996 was 27.5 per 100,000 people. Women were more at risk at 34.9 per 100,000 compared to men at 20.0. Five years later in the year 2001 the overall regional case rate had climbed to 48.6 cases per 100,000 population. This represented an increase of 77%. This was serious. Females still lead at 57.9 compare to males at 39.2 cases per 100,000. But the gap between the sexes was reduced. In 1996 the female case rate was 75% higher than that of males. In 2001 the gap was only 48%.
Lake Victoria, also referred to as Victoria Nyanza, is the main reservoir of the Nile River and is also the largest lake in Africa. It is located in Tanzania and Uganda with a small part extending into Kenya. Lake Victoria occupies an area of approximately 26,800 square miles (69,480 km2) and is the second-largest freshwater lake in the world, the only larger one being Lake Superior in North America. From north to south, Lake Victoria is 210 miles (337 km) long and from east to west it is 150 miles (240 km) wide, with over 2,000 miles (3,220 km) of coastline. The lake is situated between the Western and Eastern Rift Valleys along the great plateau. It is 3,720 feet above sea level (1,134 m) and reaches a depth of 270 feet (82 m). Within the lake, one can find many archipelagos as well as numerous reefs just below the surface. Lake Victoria is known for its abundance of fish, which are exported by local fisherman. There are over 200 species of fish, which all make a major contribution to the economy. The lake lies within the Victoria basin, which covers anarea of 92,240 square miles (238,900 km2).
Lake Victoria is bordered to the south by 300-ft (90 m) high precipices that are backed by the papyrus and ambatch swamps that form the delta of the Kagera River. The lake drains water into the Kavirondo Gulf through a narrow channel. The gulf is roughly 16 miles (25 km) wide and extends for at least 40 miles to Kisumu, Kenya. One of the largest and most important contributors to Lake Victoria is the Kagera River, which runs into the western side of the lake. One other source is the Katonga River, which is situated north of the Kagera. There are several other inlets, but the lake's only outlet is the Victoria Nile to the north.
The majority of the people inhabiting this area are Bantu-speaking. Several million people live within 50 miles (80 km) of the Lake Victoria region, which is one of the most densely populated areas in Africa. There are several cities that are built right on or very close to the northern coast of Victoria. Kampala and Entebbe benefit highly from the easy access to the water for fishing. In the northwestern corner of the lake, there is the Sese archipelago which is a chain of 62 islands contained within Lake Victoria. One of the largest islands, Ukerewe, rises over 650 feet (200 m) above the surface of the lake and is densely populated.
Regions around the lake are very important to the country’s economy. A large percentage of coffee is farmed in Kagera, large percentage of cotton production and hides come from Mwanza and Mara. Gold is mined in Geita Shinyanga and Diamond in Mwadui Shinyanga (just south of Mwanza).
Sports and entertainment
The region has different entertainment places where people go for local dances, music and football matches. Each district has several such public plaes in locations, wards and villages.The city of Mwanza is a leader in the Region’s entertainment services.
Mwanza has two stadia. In these stadia, Mwanza residents conduct, watch and play most of official sports activities. The CCM stadium is one of an international standard and has a seating capacity of 40,000 spectators. The CCM stadium hosts sports and game such as football, netball, volleyball, basketball, badminton and athletics.
The residents of Mwanza engage themselves in various sports activities such as football, netball, badminton, table tennis, volleyball, darts, boxing, athletics, fishing game, and swimming just mention few.
The city of Mwanza is represented in the Tanzanian Premier League by football club Toto African. The city was represented by the Pamba Football Club (previously owned by the Nyanza Cooperative Union) before its collapse in the early 2000s. The team was famous for its fluid and entertaining playing style.