Mars Exploration Rover
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NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission is an ongoing robotic mission of exploring Mars, that began in 2003 with the sending of two rovers — Spirit and Opportunity — to explore the Martian surface and geology. The mission is led by Project Manager Peter Theisinger of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and principal investigator Steven Squyres, professor of astronomy at Cornell University.
Primary among the mission's scientific goals is to search for and characterize a wide range of rocks and soils that hold clues to past water activity on Mars. The mission is part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program which includes three previous successful landers: the two Viking landers in 1976 and Pathfinder in 1997.
The total cost of building, launching, landing and operating the rovers on the surface for the initial 90 day primary mission was about US$820 million. Since the rovers are still functioning four years after landing, mission funding has been extended to "possibly through 2009". In July of 2007, Martian dust storms blocked sunlight to the rovers and threatened the ability of the craft to gather energy through their solar panels, causing engineers to fear that one or both of them might be permanently disabled; however, the dust storms have lifted and both rovers have resumed operations.
In recognition of the vast amount of scientific information amassed by both rovers, two asteroids have been named in their honour: 37452 Spirit and 39382 Opportunity.
The MER-A rover, Spirit, was launched on June 10, 2003 at 17:59 UTC, and MER-B, Opportunity, on July 7, 2003 at 15:18 UTC. Spirit landed in Gusev crater on January 4, 2004 at 04:35 Ground UTC. Opportunity landed in the Meridiani Planum on the opposite side of Mars from Spirit, on January 25, 2004 05:05 Ground UTC. In the week following Spirit's landing, NASA's website recorded 1.7 billion hits and 34.6 terabytes of data transferred, eclipsing records set by previous NASA missions.
On January 21, 2004, the Deep Space Network lost contact with Spirit, for reasons originally thought to be related to a thunderstorm over Australia. The rover transmitted a message with no data, but later that day missed another communications session with the Mars Global Surveyor. The next day, JPL managed to receive a beep from the rover, indicating that it was in fault mode. On the 23rd, the flight team succeeded in making the rover send. The fault was believed to have been caused by an error in the rover's Flash memory subsystem. The rover did not perform any scientific activities for 10 days, while engineers updated its software and ran tests. The problem was corrected by reformatting Spirit's flash memory and upgrading the software with a patch to avoid memory overload; Opportunity was also upgraded with the patch as a precaution. Spirit returned to full scientific operations by 5 February. This has to date been the most serious anomaly in the mission.
On March 23, 2004, a news conference was held announcing "major discoveries" of evidence of past liquid water on the Martian surface. A delegation of scientists showed pictures and data revealing a stratified pattern and cross bedding in the rocks of the outcrop inside a crater in Meridiani Planum, landing site of MER-B, Opportunity, suggesting that water once flowed in the region. The irregular distribution of chlorine and bromine also suggests that the place was once the shoreline of a salty sea, now evaporated.
On April 8, 2004, NASA announced that it was extending the mission life of the rovers from 3 to 8 months. It immediately provided additional funding of US $15 million through September, and $2.8 million per month for continuing operations.
On April 30, 2004, Opportunity arrived at Endurance crater, taking about 5 days to drive the 200 meters.
On September 22, 2004, NASA announced that it was extending the mission life of the rovers for another 6 months. Opportunity was to leave Endurance crater, visit its discarded heat shield, and proceed to Victoria crater. Spirit was to attempt to climb to the top of the Columbia Hills.
On April 6, 2005, with the two rovers still functioning well, NASA announced another 18 month extension of the mission to September 2006. Opportunity was to visit the "Etched Terrain" and Spirit was to climb a rocky slope toward the top of Husband Hill.
On August 21, 2005, Spirit reached the summit of Husband Hill after 581 sols and a journey of 4.81 kilometers (2.99 mi).
Spirit celebrated its one Martian year anniversary (669 sols or 687 Earth days) on November 20, 2005. Opportunity celebrated its anniversary on December 12. At the beginning of the mission, it was expected that the rovers would not survive much longer than 90 days. The Columbia Hills were "just a dream" according to rover driver Chris Leger.
On February 7, 2006, Spirit reached the semicircular rock formation known as Home Plate. It is a layered rock outcrop that puzzles and excites scientists. It is thought that its rocks are explosive volcanic deposits, though other possibilities exist, including impact deposits or wind/water borne sediment.
On March 13, 2006, Spirit's front right wheel ceased working while the rover was moving itself to McCool Hill. Her drivers attempted to drag the dead wheel behind Spirit, but this only worked until reaching an impassable sandy area on the lower slopes. Drivers directed Spirit to a smaller sloped feature, dubbed "Low Ridge Haven", where she spent the long Martian winter, waiting for spring and increased solar power levels suitable for driving.
Spirit had lasted over 1,000 Martian days exploring Gusev Crater as of October 25, 2006. Opportunity had lasted over 1,000 Martian days exploring Meridiani Planum as of November 16, 2006. As of January 24, 2007, the rovers had lasted on Mars more than three years. (Although Opportunity landed on January 25, the year 2004 was a leap year.)
On February 6, 2007, Opportunity became the first spacecraft to traverse 10,000 meters - 10 kilometers - on the surface of Mars.
On June 28, 2007, Opportunity was poised to enter Victoria Crater from its perch on the rim of Duck Bay., but due to extensive dust storms, it was indefinitely delayed until the dust had cleared and power returned to safe levels.
On August 28, 2007, Spirit and Opportunity resumed driving after hunkering down during raging dust storms that limited solar power to a level that nearly caused the permanent failure of both rovers.
On October 1, 2007, both Spirit and Opportunity entered their fifth mission extension that could possibly extend operations into 2009, allowing the rovers to have spent five years exploring the Martian surface, pending their continued survival.
On January 3, 2008, Spirit entered its fourth year of exploration of Gusev crater.
The Mars Exploration Rover was designed to be stowed in the nose of a Delta II rocket. Each spacecraft consists of several components:
- Rover: 185 kg (408 lb)
- Lander: 348 kg (767 lb)
- Backshell / Parachute: 209 kg (461 lb)
- Heat Shield: 78 kg (172 lb)
- Cruise Stage: 193 kg (425 lb)
- Propellant: 50 kg (110 lb)
Total mass is 1,063 kg (2,343 lb).
The cruise stage is the component of the spacecraft that is used for travel from Earth to Mars. It is very similar to the Mars Pathfinder in design and is approximately 2.65 meters (8.7 ft) in diameter and 1.6 m (5.2 ft) tall including the entry vehicle (see below).
The primary structure is aluminium with an outer ring of ribs covered by the solar panels, which are about 2.65 m (8.7 ft) in diameter. Divided into five sections, the solar arrays can provide up to 600 watts of power near Earth and 300 W at Mars.
Heaters and multi-layer insulation keep the electronics "warm". A freon system removes heat from the flight computer and communications hardware inside the rover so they do not overheat. Cruise avionics systems allow the flight computer to interface with other electronics such as the sun sensors, star scanner and heaters.
The star scanner (with a backup system) and sun sensor allowed the spacecraft to know its orientation in space by analyzing the position of the Sun and other stars in relation to itself. Sometimes the craft could be slightly off course; this was expected given the 500 million kilometer (320 million mile) journey. Thus navigators planned up to six trajectory correction maneuvers, along with health checks.
To ensure the spacecraft arrived at Mars in the right place for its landing, two light-weight, aluminium-lined tanks carried about 31 kg (about 68 lb) of hydrazine propellant. Along with cruise guidance and control systems, the propellant allowed navigators to keep the spacecraft on course. Burns and pulse firings of the propellant allowed three types of maneuvers:
- An axial burn uses pairs of thrusters to change spacecraft velocity;
- A lateral burn uses two "thruster clusters" (four thrusters per cluster) to move the spacecraft "sideways" through seconds-long pulses;
- Pulse mode firing uses coupled thruster pairs for spacecraft precession maneuvers (turns).
The spacecraft used a high-frequency X band radio wavelength to communicate, which allowed for less power and smaller antennas than many older craft, which used S band.
Navigators sent commands through two antennas on the cruise stage: a cruise low-gain antenna mounted inside the inner ring, and a cruise medium-gain antenna in the outer ring. The low-gain antenna was used close to Earth. It is omni-directional, so the transmission power that reached Earth fell fast with increasing distance. As the craft moved closer to Mars, the Sun and Earth moved closer in the sky as viewed from the craft, so less energy reached Earth. Then, the spacecraft switched to the medium-gain antenna, which directed the same amount of transmission power into a tighter beam toward Earth.
During flight, the spacecraft was spin-stabilized with a spin rate of 2 rpm. Periodic updates kept antennas pointed toward Earth and solar panels toward Sun.
The aeroshell formed a protective covering for the lander during the seven month voyage to Mars. Together with the lander and the rover, it constituted the "entry vehicle". Its main purpose was to protect the lander and the rover inside it from the intense heating of entry into the thin Martian atmosphere. It was based on the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Viking designs.
The aeroshell was made of two main parts: a heat shield and a backshell. The heat shield was flat and brownish, and protected the lander and rover from the intense heat from entry into the Martian atmosphere and acted as the first aerobrake for the spacecraft. The backshell was large, cone-shaped and painted white. It carried the parachute and several components used in later stages of entry, descent, and landing, including:
- A parachute (stowed at the top of the backshell);
- The backshell electronics and batteries that fire off pyrotechnic devices like separation nuts, rockets and the parachute mortar;
- A Litton LN-200 Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), which monitors and reports the orientation of the backshell as it swings under the parachute;
- Three large solid rocket motors called RAD rockets (Rocket Assisted Descent), each providing about a ton of force (10 kilonewtons) for over 2 seconds;
- Three small solid rockets called TIRS (mounted so that they aim horizontally out the sides of the backshell) that provide a small horizontal kick to the backshell to help orient the backshell more vertically during the main RAD rocket burn.
Built by the Lockheed Martin Astronautics Co. in Denver, Colorado, the aeroshell is made of an aluminium honeycomb structure sandwiched between graphite-epoxy face sheets. The outside of the aeroshell is covered with a layer of phenolic honeycomb. This honeycomb is filled with an ablative material (also called an "ablator"), that dissipates heat generated by atmospheric friction.
The ablator itself is a unique blend of cork wood, binder and many tiny silica glass spheres. It was invented for the heat shields flown on the Viking Mars lander missions. A similar technology was used in the first US manned space missions Mercury, Gemini and Apollo. It was specially formulated to react chemically with the Martian atmosphere during entry and carry heat away, leaving a hot wake of gas behind the vehicle. The vehicle slowed from 19000 km/h (about 12000 mph) to about 1600 km/h (1000 mph) in about a minute, producing about 60 m/s² (6 g) of acceleration on the lander and rover.
The backshell and heat shield are made of the same materials, but the heat shield has a thicker 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) layer of the ablator. Also, instead of being painted, the backshell was covered with a very thin aluminized PET film blanket to protect it from the cold of deep space. The blanket vaporized during Mars atmospheric entry.
The parachute helped slow the spacecraft during entry, descent, and landing. It is located in the backshell.
The 2003 parachute design was part of a long-term Mars parachute technology development effort and is based on the designs and experience of the Viking and Pathfinder missions. The parachute for this mission is 40% larger than Pathfinder's because the largest load for the Mars Exploration Rover is 80 to 85 kilonewtons (kN) or 18,000 to 19,000 lbf (85 kN) when the parachute fully inflates. By comparison, Pathfinder's inflation loads were approximately 35 kN (about 8,000 lbf). The parachute was designed and constructed in South Windsor, Connecticut by Pioneer Aerospace ( website), the company that also designed the parachute for the Stardust mission.
The parachute is made of two durable, lightweight fabrics: polyester and nylon. A triple bridle made of Kevlar connects the parachute to the backshell.
The amount of space available on the spacecraft for the parachute is so small that the parachute had to be pressure packed. Before launch, a team tightly folded the 48 suspension lines, three bridle lines, and the parachute. The parachute team loaded the parachute in a special structure that then applied a heavy weight to the parachute package several times. Before placing the parachute into the backshell, the parachute was heat set to sterilize it.
Zylon Bridles: After the parachute was deployed at an altitude of about 10 km (6 miles) above the surface, the heatshield was released using 6 separation nuts and push-off springs. The lander then separated from the backshell and "rappelled" down a metal tape on a centrifugal braking system built into one of the lander petals. The slow descent down the metal tape placed the lander in position at the end of another bridle (tether), made of a nearly 20 m (65 ft) long braided Zylon.
Zylon is an advanced fibre material similar to Kevlar that is sewn in a webbing pattern (like shoelace material) to make it stronger. The Zylon bridle provides space for airbag deployment, distance from the solid rocket motor exhaust stream, and increased stability. The bridle incorporates an electrical harness that allows the firing of the solid rockets from the backshell as well as provides data from the backshell inertial measurement unit (which measures rate and tilt of the spacecraft) to the flight computer in the rover.
Rocket assisted descent (RAD): motors. Because the atmospheric density of Mars is less than 1% of Earth's, the parachute alone could not slow down the Mars Exploration Rover enough to ensure a safe, low landing speed. The spacecraft descent was assisted by rockets that brought the spacecraft to a dead stop 10–15 m (30–50 ft) above the Martian surface.
Radar altimeter unit: A radar altimeter unit was used to determine the distance to the Martian surface. The radar's antenna is mounted at one of the lower corners of the lander tetrahedron. When the radar measurement showed the lander was the correct distance above the surface, the Zylon bridle was cut, releasing the lander from the parachute and backshell so that it was free and clear for landing. The radar data also enabled the timing sequence on airbag inflation and backshell RAD rocket firing.
Airbags used in the Mars Exploration Rover mission are the same type that Mars Pathfinder used in 1997. They had to be strong enough to cushion the spacecraft if it landed on rocks or rough terrain and allow it to bounce across Mars' surface at freeway speeds after landing. The airbags had to be inflated seconds before touchdown and deflated once safely on the ground.
The airbags were made of Vectran, like those on Pathfinder. Vectran has almost twice the strength of other synthetic materials, such as Kevlar, and performs better in cold temperatures. Six 100 denier (10 mg/m) layers of Vectran protected one or two inner bladders of Vectran in 200 denier (20 mg/m). Using 100 denier (10 mg/m) leaves more fabric in the outer layers where it is needed, because there are more threads in the weave.
Each rover used four airbags with six lobes each, which were all connected. Connection was important, since it helped abate some of the landing forces by keeping the bag system flexible and responsive to ground pressure. The airbags were not attached directly to the rover, but were held to it by ropes crisscrossing the bag structure. The ropes gave the bags shape, making inflation easier. While in flight, the bags were stowed along with three gas generators that are used for inflation.
The spacecraft lander is a protective "shell" that houses the rover and protects it, along with the airbags, from the forces of impact.
The lander is a tetrahedron shape whose sides open like petals. It is strong and light, and made of beams and sheets. The beams consist of layers of graphite fibre woven into a fabric that is lighter than aluminium and more rigid than steel. Titanium fittings are glued and fitted onto the beams to allow it to be bolted together. The rover was held inside the lander by bolts and special nuts that were released after landing with small explosives.
After the lander stopped bouncing and rolling on the ground, it came to rest on the base of the tetrahedron or one of its sides. Then, the sides open to make the base horizontal and the rover upright. The sides are connected to the base by hinges, each of which has a motor strong enough to lift the lander. The rover plus lander has a mass of about 533 kilograms (1,175 pounds). The rover alone weighs about 185 kg (408 lb). The gravity on Mars is about 38% of Earth's, so the motor does not need to be as powerful as it would on Earth.
The rover contains accelerometers to detect which way is down (toward the surface of Mars) by measuring the pull of gravity. The rover computer then commanded the correct lander petal to open to place the rover upright. Once the base petal was down and the rover was upright, the other two petals were opened.
The petals initially opened to an equally flat position, so all sides of the lander were straight and level. The petal motors are strong enough so that if two of the petals come to rest on rocks, the base with the rover would be held in place like a bridge above the ground. The base will hold at a level even with the height of the petals resting on rocks, making a straight flat surface throughout the length of the open, flattened lander. The flight team on Earth could then send commands to the rover to adjust the petals to create a safe path for the rover to drive off the lander and onto the Martian surface without dropping off a steep rock.
Moving the payload onto Mars
The moving of the rover off the lander is called the egress phase of the mission. The rover must avoid having its wheels caught in the airbag material or falling off a sharp incline. To help this, a retraction system on the petals slowly drags the airbags toward the lander before the petals open. Small ramps on the petals fan out to fill spaces between the petals. They cover uneven terrain, rock obstacles, and airbag material, and form a circular area from which the rover can drive off in more directions. They also lower the step that the rover must climb down. They are nicknamed "batwings", and are made of Vectran cloth.
About three hours were allotted to retract the airbags and deploy the lander petals.
The rovers are six-wheeled, solar-powered robots which stand 1.5 m (4.9 ft) high, 2.3 m (7.5 ft) wide and 1.6 m (5.2 ft) long. They weigh 180 kg (400 lb), 35 kg (80 lb) of which is the wheel and suspension system.
Each rover has six wheels mounted on a rocker-bogie suspension system that ensures wheels remain on the ground while driving over rough terrain. The design reduces the range of motion of the rover body by half, and allows the rover to go over obstacles or through holes that are more than a wheel diameter (250 mm or 10 inches) in size. Each wheel also has cleats, providing grip for climbing in soft sand and scrambling over rocks.
Each wheel has its own motor. The two front and two rear wheels each have individual steering motors. This allows the vehicle to turn in place, a full revolution, and to swerve and curve, making arching turns. The rover is designed to withstand a tilt of 45 degrees in any direction without overturning. However, the rover is programmed through its "fault protection limits" in its hazard avoidance software to avoid exceeding tilts of 30 degrees.
Each rover can spin one of its front wheels in place to grind deep into the terrain. It is to remain motionless while the digging wheel is spinning.
The rover has a top speed on flat hard ground of 50 mm/s (2 in/s). But its average speed is 10 mm/s because its hazard avoidance software causes it to stop every 10 seconds for 20 seconds to observe and understand the terrain it has driven into.
Power and electronic systems
When fully illuminated, the rover solar arrays generate about 140 watts for up to four hours per Martian day ( sol). The rover needs about 100 watts to drive. Its power system includes two rechargeable lithium ion batteries weighing 7.15 kg (16 pounds) each, that provide energy when the sun is not shining, especially at night. Over time, the batteries will degrade and will not be able to recharge to full capacity.
For comparison, the future Mars Science Laboratory is expected to last approximately one Martian year using radioisotope thermoelectric generators to power its many instruments. Solar panels are also being considered, but RTGs provide versatility to work in dark environments and high latitudes where solar energy is not an efficient way to generate power.
It was thought that by the end of the 90-sol mission, the capability of the solar arrays to generate power would likely be reduced to about 50 watts. This was due to anticipated dust coverage on the solar arrays, and the change in season. But over three Earth years later, the rovers' power supplies hovered between 300 watt-hours and 900 watt-hours per day, depending on dust coverage. Cleaning events (probably wind) have occurred more often than NASA expected, keeping the arrays relatively free of dust and extending the life of the mission. During a 2007 global dust storm on Mars, both rovers experienced some of the lowest power of the mission; Opportunity dipped to a mere 128 watt-hours.
The rovers run a VxWorks embedded operating system on a radiation-hardened 20 MHz RAD6000 CPU with 128 MB of DRAM with error detection and correction and 3 MB of EEPROM. Each rover also has 256 MB of flash memory. To survive during all of the various mission phases, the rover's vital instruments must stay within a temperature of −40 °C to +40 °C (−40 °F to 104 °F). At night the rovers are heated by eight radioisotope heater units (RHU) which each continuously generate 1 W of thermal energy from the decay of radioisotopes, along with electrical heaters that operate only when necessary. A sputtered gold film and a layer of silica aerogel are used for insulation.
The rover has a low-gain and a high-gain antenna. The low-gain antenna is omnidirectional, and transmits data at a low rate to Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas on Earth. The high-gain antenna is directional and steerable, and can transmit data to Earth at a higher rate.
The rovers also use the low-gain antennas to communicate with spacecraft orbiting Mars, the Mars Odyssey and (before its failure) the Mars Global Surveyor. The orbiters relay data from and to Earth; most data to Earth is relayed through Odyssey. The benefits of using the orbiters are that they are closer to the rovers than the antennas on Earth, and have view of Earth for much longer than the rovers. The orbiters communicate with the rovers using UHF antennas, which have shorter range than the low and high-gain antennas. One UHF antenna is on the rover and one is on a petal of the lander to aid in gaining information during the critical landing event.
The rovers have a total of 18 cameras, which produce 1024-pixel by 1024-pixel images at 12 bits per pixel, but most images are truncated to 8 bits per pixel. They are then compressed using ICER before being stored and sent to Earth. Navigation, thumbnail, and many other image types are compressed to approximately 1 bit/pixel. Lower bit rates (less than 0.5 bit/pixel) are used for certain wavelengths of multi-colour panoramic images.
ICER is based on wavelets, and was designed specifically for deep-space applications. It produces progressive compression, both lossless and lossy, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss on the deep-space channel. It outperforms the lossy JPEG image compressor and the lossless Rice compressor used by the MPF mission.
The rover has various instruments. Three are mounted on one assembly:
- Panoramic Camera (Pancam), for determining the texture, colour, mineralogy, and structure of the local terrain.
- Navigation Camera (Navcam), that has higher field of view but lower resolution and is monochromatic, for navigation and driving.
- A mirror for the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES), which identifies promising rocks and soils for closer examination, and determines the processes that formed them. It was built by Arizona State University. See the main Mini-TES article.
The cameras are mounted 1.5 meters high on the Pancam Mast Assembly. One motor turns the assembly horizontally a whole revolution. Another points the cameras vertically, at most straight up or down. A third motor points the Mini-TES, up to 30° above the horizon and 50° below. The assembly was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, Colorado, as was the High-Gain Antenna Gimbal (HGAG).
Four monochromatic hazard cameras ( Hazcams) are mounted on the rover's body, two in front and two behind.
The instrument deployment device (IDD), also called the rover arm, holds the following:
- Mössbauer spectrometer (MB) MIMOS II, developed by Dr. Göstar Klingelhöfer at the Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany, is used for close-up investigations of the mineralogy of iron-bearing rocks and soils.
- Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer ( APXS), developed by the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany, is used for close-up analysis of the abundances of elements that make up rocks and soils.
- Magnets, for collecting magnetic dust particles, developed by Jens Martin Knudsen's group at the Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen. The particles are analyzed by the Mössbauer Spectrometer and X-ray Spectrometer to help determine the ratio of magnetic particles to non-magnetic particles and the composition of magnetic minerals in airborne dust and rocks that have been ground by the Rock Abrasion Tool. There are also magnets on the front of the rover, which are studied extensively by the Mössbauer spectrometer.
- Microscopic Imager (MI) for obtaining close-up, high-resolution images of rocks and soils. Development was led by Ken Herkenhoff's team at the USGS Astrogeology Research Program.
- Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT), developed by Honeybee Robotics, for removing dusty and weathered rock surfaces and exposing fresh material for examination by instruments on-board.
The robotic arm is able to place instruments directly up against rock and soil targets of interest.
Naming of Spirit and Opportunity
The Spirit and Opportunity rovers were named through a student essay competition. The winning entry was by Sofi Collis, a third-grade Russian-American student from Arizona.
I used to live in an orphanage. It was dark and cold and lonely. At night, I looked up at the sparkly sky and felt better. I dreamed I could fly there. In America, I can make all my dreams come true. Thank you for the 'Spirit' and the 'Opportunity.'
— Sofi Collis, age 9
Prior to this, during the development and building of the rovers, they were known as MER-1 (Opportunity) and MER-2 (Spirit). Internally NASA also uses the mission designations MER-A (Spirit) and MER-B (Opportunity) based on the order of landing on Mars (Spirit first then Opportunity).
The NASA team uses a software application called SAP to view images collected from the rover, and to plan its daily activities. There is a version available to the public called Maestro.