|Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Dèagh|
|City of Discovery|
Top: Tay Rail Bridge, Middle: RRS Discovery and City Centre, Bottom left: Magdalen Yard Bandstand, Bottom right: University of Dundee.
Dundee shown within Scotland
|Area||26 sq mi (67 km2)|
Metropolitan area -
est. 159,522 (2006)
|OS grid reference|
|Council area||Dundee City|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|UK Parliament||Dundee East|
|Scottish Parliament||Dundee East|
|North East Scotland|
Dundee ( / /; from the Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Dèagh) is the fourth-largest city in Scotland and the 38th most populous settlement in the United Kingdom. It lies within the eastern central Lowlands on the north bank of the Firth of Tay, which feeds into the North Sea. Under the name of Dundee City, it forms one of the 32 council areas used for Local government in Scotland.
Evidence suggests Dundee has been continuously occupied since the Mesolithic. The town developed into a burgh in Medieval times, and expanded rapidly in the 19th century largely due to the jute industry. This, along with its other major industries gave Dundee its epithet as the city of "jam, jute and journalism".
In mid-2008, the population of Dundee City was estimated to be 142,070, with a metropolitan population of 159,522. Dundee's recorded population reached a peak of 182,204 at the time of the 1971 census, but has since declined due to emigration.
Today, Dundee is promoted as 'One City Many Discoveries.' This took over from the City of Discovery, in honour of Dundee's history of scientific activities and of the RRS Discovery, Robert Falcon Scott's Antarctic exploration vessel, which was built in Dundee and is now berthed in the city harbour. Biomedical and technological industries have arrived since the 1980s, and the city now accounts for 10% of the United Kingdom's digital-entertainment industry. Dundee has two universities—the University of Dundee and the University of Abertay Dundee.
The name "Dundee" is made up of two parts: the Scots Gaelic place-name element dùn, meaning fort; and a second, enigmatic element, which may derive from the Gaelic "dèagh", meaning 'fire' or from "Tay".
The area surrounding the modern city has been continuously occupied since the Mesolithic. From the Iron Age, through to the early Medieval period, the area formed a demesne controlled from the Law Hill fort.
The earldom of Dundee was granted by charter by King William to his younger brother, David (later Earl of Huntingdon) in the late 12th century. The situation of the town and David's promotion of it as a trading centre, lead to a period of prosperity and growth. The earldom was passed down to David's descendants amongst whom was John Balliol, the town becoming a Royal Burgh on the coronation of John as king in 1292. Burghal status was revoked during the First War of Independence and subsequently renewed by charter from Robert the Bruce in 1327.
The town suffered large scale destruction during the rough wooing of 1544 to 1551. In 1645, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Dundee was again besieged, this time by the Royalist Marquess of Montrose. The town was finally destroyed by Parliamentarian forces, led by George Monk in 1651. The town became an early site of support for the Jacobite cause when John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount Dundee raised the Stuart standard on Dundee Law in 1689, earning him the nickname Bonnie Dundee.
Dundee greatly expanded in size during the Industrial Revolution mainly because of the burgeoning British Empire trade, flax and then latterly the jute industry. By the end of the 19th century, a majority of the city's workers were employed in its many jute mills and in related industries. Dundee's location on a major estuary allowed for the easy importation of jute from the Indian subcontinent as well as whale oil—needed for the processing of the jute—from the city's large whaling industry. The industry began to decline in the 20th century as it became cheaper to process the cloth on the Indian subcontinent. The city's last jute mill closed in the 1970s.
The city is also became known for smaller industries, notably the production of Keiller's marmalade, and the publishing firm DC Thomson & Co., which was founded in the city in 1905 and remains the largest employer after the health and leisure industries. Dundee was said to be built on the 'three Js': Jute, Jam and Journalism.
Dundee's maritime and shipbuilding industry was once a major economic force. At its height, 200 ships per year were built in there, including Robert Falcon Scott's Antarctic research vessel, the RRS Discovery. This ship is now on display at Discovery Point in the city. A significant whaling industry was also based in Dundee, largely existing to supply the jute mills with whale oil. Whaling ceased in 1912 and shipbuilding ceased in 1981.
The town was also the location of one of the worst rail disasters in British history, the Tay Bridge disaster. The first Tay rail bridge, was opened in 1879. It collapsed less than a year later during a storm, as a passenger train passed over it, resulting in the loss of 75 lives.
Dundee became a unitary council area in 1996 under the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994, which gave it a single tier of local government control under the Dundee City Council. The city has two mottos—Latin: Dei Donum (English: Gift of God) and Prudentia et Candore (With Thought And Purity), although usually only the latter is used for civic purposes. Dundee is represented in both the British House of Commons and in the Scottish Parliament. For elections to the European Parliament, Dundee is within the Scotland constituency.
Dundee is one of 32 council areas of Scotland, represented by the Dundee City Council, a local authority composed of 29 elected councillors. Previously the city was a county of a city and later a district of the Tayside region. Council meetings take place in the City Chambers, which opened in 1933 and are located in City Square. The civic head and chair of the council is known as the Lord Provost, a position similar to that of mayor in other cities. The council executive is based in Tayside House, but the council, lead by Bruce Ewart, recently announced plans to demolish it in favour of new premises (Dundee House) on North Lindsay Street.
Prior to 1996, Dundee was governed by the City of Dundee District Council. This was formed in 1975, implementing boundaries imposed in the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973. Under these boundaries, the Angus burgh and district of Monifieth, and the Perth electoral division of Longforgan (which included Invergowrie) were annexed to the county of the city of Dundee. In 1996, the Dundee City unitary authority was created following impementation of the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994. This placed Monifieth and Invergowrie in the unitary authorities of Angus and Perth and Kinross, largely reinstating the pre-1975 county boundaries. Some controversy has ensued as a result of these boundary changes, with Dundee city councillors arguing for the return of Monifieth and Invergowrie in order to subsidise Dundee City Council Tax revenues.
The council was controlled by a minority coalition of Labour and Liberal Democrats of 12 councillors, with the support of the Conservatives who had five. Although the Scottish National Party (SNP) was the largest party on the council, with 11 councillors. Elections to the council are on a four year cycle, the most recent as of 2007 being on 3 May 2007. Previously, Councillors were elected from single-member wards by the first past the post system of election, although this changed in the 2007 election, due to the Local Governance (Scotland) Act 2004. Eight new multi-member wards were introduced, each electing three or four councillors by single transferable vote, to produce a form of proportional representation. The 2007 election resulting in no single party having overall control, with 13 Scottish National Party, 10 Labour, 3 Conservatives, 2 Liberal Democrats, and 1 Independent Councillors. A March 2009 by election in the Maryfield ward changed the balance to 14 Scottish National Party, 9 Labour, 3 Conservatives, 2 Liberal Democrats, and 2 Independent Councillors,
Westminster and Holyrood
For elections to the British House of Commons at Westminster, the city area and portions of the Angus council area are divided in two constituencies. The constituencies of Dundee East and Dundee West are as of 2007 represented by Stewart Hosie (Scottish National Party (SNP)) and James McGovern (Labour), respectively. For elections to the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood, the city area is divided between three constituencies. The Dundee East (Holyrood) constituency and the Dundee West (Holyrood) constituency are entirely within the city area. The Angus (Holyrood) constituency includes north-eastern and north-western portions of the city area. All three constituencies are within the North East Scotland electoral region. as of 2007 Shona Robison (SNP) is the Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) for the Dundee East constituency; Joe Fitzpatrick (SNP) is the current MSP for the Dundee West constituency and Andrew Welsh (SNP) is the current MSP for the Angus constituency.
Dundee is located on the north bank of the Firth of Tay and near the North Sea. The city surrounds the basalt plug of an extinct volcano, called Dundee Law or simply The Law (174 metres (571 ft)). Dundee is Scotland's only south-facing city, giving it a claim to being Scotland's sunniest and warmest city. Temperatures tend to be a couple of degrees higher than Aberdeen to the north or the coastal areas of Angus. Dundee suffers less severe winters than other parts of Scotland due to the close proximity to the North sea and the salt air and a range of protective hills at the back of the city, which are often snow covered while the city itself remains clear.
|Climate chart ( explanation)|
The city, being on a relatively small landspace, is the most densely populated area in Scotland after Glasgow and around fifth in the UK overall. It is characterised by tall tenements, mainly four storeys high, Victorian, and built from a honey or brown sandstone. The inner districts of the city, as well as some of the outer estates, are home to a number of multi storey tower blocks from the 1960s, although these have been gradually being demolished in recent years. The outer estates are among some of the poorest urban districts in the United Kingdom. To the east of the city area is the distinct but incorporated suburb of Broughty Ferry.
Dundee lies close to Perth (20 miles) and the southern Highlands to the west. St Andrews (14 miles) and north-east Fife are situated to the south, while the Sidlaw Hills, Angus Glens and the Glamis Castle are located to the north. Two of Scotland's most prestigious links golf courses, St Andrews and Carnoustie are located nearby.
Natives of Dundee are called Dundonians and are often recognisable by their distinctive dialect of Scots as well as their accent, which most noticeably substitutes the monophthong /e/ in place of the diphthong /ai/. Dundee's population increased substantially with the urbanisation of the Industrial Revolution as did other British cities. The most significant influx occurred in the mid-19th century with the arrival of Irish workers fleeing from the Potato Famine and attracted by industrialisation.
The city has also attracted immigrants from Italy, fleeing poverty and famine, and Poland, seeking refuge from the anti-Jewish pogroms in the 19th century, and later, World War II in the 20th. Today, Dundee has a sizeable ethnic minority population, and has the third highest Asian population (~3,500) in Scotland after Glasgow and Edinburgh.
The city's universities draw a large number of students from abroad (mostly Irish and EU but with an increasing number from countries in the Far East), and students account for 14.2% of the population, the highest proportion of the four largest Scottish cities.
Dundee is a regional employment and education centre, with over 300,000 persons within 30 minutes drive of the city centre and 700,000 people within one hour. Many people from North East Fife, Angus and Perth and Kinross commute to the city. In 2006 the city itself had an economically active population of 76.7% of the working age population, about 20% of the working age population are full time students. The city sustains just under 95,000 jobs in around 4,000 companies. The number of jobs in the city has grown by around 10% since 1996. Recent and current investment levels in the city are at a record level. Since 1997 Dundee has been the focus of investment approaching an estimated £1 billion.
Despite this economic growth the proportion of Dundee's population whose lives are affected by poverty and who are classed as socially excluded is second only to Glasgow. Median weekly earnings were £409 in February 2006, an increase of 33% since 1998, on a par with the Scottish median. Unemployment in 2006 was around 3.8%, higher than the Scottish average of 2.6%, although the city has narrowed this disparity since 1996, when unemployment was 8.6% compared to a Scottish average of 6.1%. In 2000 the number of unemployed in the city fell to below 5,000 for the first time in over 25 years. Average house prices in Dundee more than doubled from 1990 to 2006, from an average of £42,475 to £102,025. Total house sales in the city more than tripled from 1990 to 2004, from £115,915,391 to £376,999,716. House prices rose by over 15% between 2001–2002 and 2002–2003 and between 2005 and 2006 by 16.6%.
Modern economic history
The period following World War II was notable for the transformation of the city's economy. While jute still employed one-fifth of the working population, new industries were attracted and encouraged. NCR Corporation selected Dundee as the base of operations for the UK in late 1945, primarily because of the lack of damage the city had sustained in the war, good transport links and high productivity from long hours of sunshine. Production started in the year before the official opening of the plant on 11 June 1947. A fortnight after the 10th anniversary of the plant (known locally amongst Dundonians as "The Cash"), the 250,000th cash machine was produced. By the 1960s, NCR had become the principal employer of the city producing cash registers, and later ATMs, at several of its Dundee plants. The firm, developed magnetic-strip readers for cash registers and produced early computers. Astral, a Dundee-based firm that manufactured and sold refrigerators and spin dryers was merged into Morphy Richards and rapidly expanded to employ over 1,000 people. The development in Dundee of a Michelin tyre-production facility helped to absorb the unemployment caused by the decline of the jute industry, particularly with the abolition of the jute control by the Board of Trade on 30 April 1969.
Employment in Dundee changed dramatically during the 1980s with the loss of nearly 10,000 manufacturing jobs due to closure of the shipyards, cessation of carpet manufacturing and the disappearance of the jute trade. To combat growing unemployment and declining economic conditions, Dundee was declared an Enterprise Zone in January 1984. In 1983, the first Sinclair Sinclair ZX Spectrum home computers were produced in Dundee by Timex. In the same year the company broke production records, despite a sit-in by workers protesting job cuts and plans to demolish one of the factory buildings to make way for a supermarket. Timex closed its Dundee plant in 1993 following an acrimonious six month industrial dispute. In January 2007, NCR announced its intention to cut 650 jobs at its Gourdie facility, and to turn the facility over for low volume production. However, following the global economic downturn of 2007-2009, the company closed the manufacturing facility completely in June 2009, with the loss of a further 225 jobs. The company has however pledged to keep R&D, sales and support functions in Dundee, retaining 450 jobs.
As in the rest of Scotland manufacturing industries are being gradually replaced by a mixed economy, although 13.5% of the workforce still work in the manufacturing sector, higher than the Scottish and UK average, and more than double that of Edinburgh, Glasgow and Aberdeen. The main new growth sectors have been software development and biotechnology along with retail. The city has a small financial, banking and insurance sector, employing 11% of the workforce.
In 2006, 29 companies employed 300 or more staff these include limited and private companies NCR Corporation, Michelin, Tesco, D. C. Thomson & Co, BT, SiTEL, Alliance Trust, Norwich Union, Royal Bank of Scotland, Asda, Strathtay Scottish, Tayside Contracts, Tokheim, Scottish Citylink, W H Brown Construction, C J Lang & Son, Joinery and Timber Creations, HBOS, Debenhams, Travel Dundee, WL Gore and Associates, In Practice Systems, The Wood Group, Simclar, Millipore Life Sciences, Alchemy (antibody technology), Cypex(manufacturers of recombinant drug metabolising enzymes, including cytochrome P450s, and in vitro drug metabolism specialists). Major employers in the public sector and non profit sector are NHS Tayside, the University of Dundee, Tayside Police, Dundee College, Tayside Fire Brigade, HM Revenue and Customs, University of Abertay Dundee and Wellcome Trust.
The largest employers in Dundee are the city council and the Health Service, which make up over 10% of the city's workforce. The biomedical and biotechnology sectors, including start-up biomedical companies arising from university research, employ just under 1,000 people directly and nearly 2,000 indirectly. Information technology and software for computer games have been important industries in the city for more than twenty years. Rockstar North, developer of Lemmings and the Grand Theft Auto series was founded in Dundee as DMA Design by David Jones; an undergraduate of the University of Abertay Dundee. Other game developing companies in Dundee include Denki, Ruffian Games, Dynamo Games, 4J Studios, Cohort Studios amongst others.
Dundee is responsible for 10% of Britain's digital entertainment industry, with an annual turnover of £100 million. Outside of specialised fields of medicine, science and technology, the proportion of Dundonians employed in the manufacturing sector is higher than that found in the larger Scottish cities; nearly 12% of workers. Manufacturing income per head in Dundee was £19,700 in 1999, compared to £16,700 in Glasgow. The insolvency rate for businesses in Dundee is lower than other Scottish cities, accounting for only 2.3% of all liquidations in Scotland, compared to 22% and 61.4% for Edinburgh and Glasgow respectively.
The city is served by Ninewells Hospital—one of the largest and most up to date in Europe, as well as three other public hospitals: Kings Cross, Victoria, and Ashludie, and one private: Fernbrae. A recent addition to Ninewells Hospital is the Maggie's Centre building, which was designed by Frank Gehry and officially opened by Bob Geldof in 2007.
Dundee is Scotland's first Fibrecity.
Gardyne's Land, located at 71 High Street, is a collection of five unique and interesting historical buildings. The Merchant's House (part of the complex) is the oldest, built by John Gardyne around 1560. The house is recognised as Dundee's oldest house. All of the houses have been restored and converted into a backpackers hostel.
Dundee is served by the A90 road which connects the city to the M90 and Perth in the west, and Forfar and Aberdeen in the north. The part of the road that is in the city is a dual carriageway and forms the city's main bypass on its north side, known as the Kingsway, which can become very busy at rush hour. To the east, the A92 connects the city to Carnoustie, Monifieth and Arbroath. The A92 also connects the city to the county of Fife on the south side of the Tay estuary via the Tay Road Bridge. The main southern route around the city is Riverside Drive and Riverside Avenue (the A991), that runs alongside the Tay from a junction with the A90 in the west, to the city centre where it joins the A92 at the bridge.
Dundee has an extensive public bus transport system, with the Seagate bus station serving as the city's main terminus for journeys out of town. Travel Dundee operates most of the intra-city services, with other more rural services operated by Stagecoach Strathtay. The city's two railway stations are the main Dundee (Tay Bridge) Station, which is situated near the waterfront and the much smaller Broughty Ferry Station, which is located to the eastern end of the city. These are complemented by the stations at Invergowrie, Balmossie and Monifieth. Passenger services at Dundee are provided by First ScotRail, CrossCountry and East Coast. There are no freight services that serve the city since the Freightliner terminal in Dundee was closed in the 1980s.
There are also many intercity bus services offered by Megabus, Citylink and National Express.
Dundee Airport offers commercial flights to London City Airport, Birmingham International Airport and Belfast City. The airport is capable of serving small aircraft and is located 3 kilometres west of the city centre, adjacent to the River Tay. The nearest major international airport is Edinburgh Airport, 59.2 miles (95.3 km) to the south.
The nearest passenger seaport is Rosyth, about 35 miles (56 km) to the south on the Firth of Forth.
Schools in Dundee have a pupil enrollment of over 20,300. There are thirty-seven primary state schools and nine secondary state schools in the city. Of these, eleven primary and two secondary schools serve the city's Catholic population; the remainder are non-denominational. There is also one specialist school that caters for pupils with learning difficulties aged between five and eighteen from Dundee and the surrounding area.
Dundee is home to one independent school, the High School of Dundee, which was founded in the 13th century by the Abbot and monks of Lindores Abbey. The current building was designed by George Angus in a Greek Revival style and built in 1832-34. Early students included Thomas Thomson and Hector Boece, as well as the brothers James, John and Robert Wedderburn who were the authors of The Gude and Godlie Ballatis, one of the most important literary works of the Scottish Reformation. It was the earliest reformed school in Scotland, having adopted the new religion in 1554. According to Blind Harry's largely apocryphal work, William Wallace, was also educated in Dundee.
Colleges and universities
Dundee is home to two universities and a student population of approximately 17,000.
The University of Dundee became an independent entity in 1967, after 70 years of being incorporated into the University of St Andrews during which time it was known initially as University College and latterly as Queen's College. Significant research in biomedical fields and oncology is carried out in the "College of Life Sciences". The university also incorporates the Duncan of Jordanstone School of Art and Design and the teacher training college.
The University of Abertay Dundee was founded as Dundee Institute of Technology in 1888. It was granted university status in 1994 under the Further and Higher Education Act, 1992. The university is noted for its computing and creative technology courses, particularly in computer games technology.
Dundee College is the city's umbrella further education college, which was established in 1985 as an institution of higher education and vocational training.
The Al-Maktoum Institute was established in Dundee in Blackness Road in 2001. It is a research-led institution of higher education which offers postgraduate programmes of study (taught Masters and MPhil/PhD research) in the study of Islam and Muslims and multiculturalism. It is an independent institution, with its degree programmes validated by the University of Aberdeen.
The Church of Scotland Presbytery of Dundee is responsible for overseeing the worship of 37 congregations in and around the Dundee area, 21 of which are in the city itself, with a further 5 in Broughty Ferry and Barnhill, although dwindling attendances have led to some of the churches becoming linked charges. Due to their city centre location, the City Churches, Dundee Parish Church (St Mary's) and the Steeple Church, are the most prominent Church of Scotland buildings in Dundee. They are on the site of the medieval parish kirk of St Mary, of which only the 15th century west tower survives. The attached church was once the largest parish church in medieval Scotland. Dundee was unusual among Scottish medieval burghs in having two parish kirks; the second, dedicated to St Clement, has disappeared, but its site was approximately that of the present City Square.
In the Middle Ages Dundee was also the site of houses of the Dominicans (Blackfriars), and Franciscans (Greyfriars), and had a number of hospitals and chapels. These establishments were sacked during the Scottish Reformation, in the mid-16th century, and were reduced to burial grounds, now Barrack Street and Howff burial ground respectively.
St. Paul's Cathedral is the seat of the Scottish Episcopal Diocese of Brechin. It is charged with overseeing the worship of 8 congregations in the city (9, including Broughty Ferry), as well as a further 17 in Angus, the Carse of Gowrie and parts of Aberdeenshire. The diocese is led by Bishop John Mantle. St. Andrew's Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dunkeld, led by Bishop Vincent Paul Logan. The diocese is responsible for overseeing 15 congregations in Dundee and 37 in the surrounding area.
There are Methodist, Baptist, Congregationalist, Pentacostalist and Salvation Army, churches in the city, and non-mainstream Christian groups are also well represented, including the Unitarians, the Society of Friends, the Jehovah's Witnesses, Christadelphians, and Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Muslims are served by the Dundee Islamic Society Central Mosque in Brown Street built in 2000 to replace their former premises in Hilltown. There are also smaller mosques at Victoria Road and Dura Street.
A recorded Jewish community has existed in the city since the 19th century. There is a small Orthodox synagogue at Dudhope Park that was built in the 1960s, with the Hebrew Burial Grounds located three miles (5 km) to the east. Samye Dzong Dundee is a Buddhist Temple based in Reform Street. There is also a Hindu mandir and Sikh gurdwara that share a premises in Taylor's Lane situated in the West End of the city, and there is a second gurdwara in Victoria Road.
Dundee is home to Scotland's only full-time repertory ensemble, established in the 1930s. One of its alumni, Hollywood actor Brian Cox is a native of the city. The Dundee Repertory Theatre, built in 1982 is the base for Scottish Dance Theatre. Dundee's principal concert auditorium, the Caird Hall (named after its benefactor, the jute baron James Key Caird) regularly hosts the Royal Scottish National Orchestra. Various smaller venues host local and international musicians during Dundee's annual Jazz, Guitar and Blues Festivals. An art gallery and an art house cinema are located in Dundee Contemporary Arts, which opened in 1999 in the city's cultural quarter. McManus Galleries is a Gothic Revival-style building, located in Albert Square. It houses a museum and art gallery; exhibits include a collection of fine and decorative art, items from Dundee's history and natural history artefacts. Britain's only full-time public observatory, Mills Observatory is located at the summit of the city's Balgay Hill. Sensation Science Centre, is a science centre with over 80 exhibits based on the five senses. Verdant Works is a museum dedicated to the once dominant jute industry in Dundee and is based in a former jute mill. A new £47 million pound centre for art and design known as the "V&A at Dundee" is to be built south of Craig Harbour onto the River Tay for completion in 2014. The new museum may bring another 500,000 extra visitors to the city and create up to 900 jobs for the area.
Dundee is home to DC Thomson. Dundee has a strong literary heritage, with several authors having been born, lived or studied in the city. These include A. L. Kennedy, Rosamunde Pilcher, Kate Atkinson, Thomas Dick, Mary Shelley, Mick McCluskey, John Burnside and Neil Forsyth. The Dundee International Book Prize is a biennial competition open to new authors, offering a prize of £10,000 and publication by Polygon Books. Past winners have included Andrew Murray Scott, Claire-Marie Watson and Malcolm Archibald. William McGonagall, regularly cited as the "worlds worst poet", worked and wrote in the city, often giving performances of his work in pubs and bars. Many of his poems are about the city and events therein, such as his work The Tay Bridge Disaster. City of Recovery Press was founded in Dundee, and has become a controversial figure in documenting the darker side of the city.
The Dundee Mountain Film Festival (DMFF), held in the last weekend of November, presents the best presenters and films of the year in mountaineering, mountain culture and adventure sport, along with an art and trade exhibition. DMFF is also one of the member of International Alliance for Mountain Film (IAMF) among other important international Mountain film festivals.
Popular music groups such as the 1970s soul-funk outfit Average White Band, the Associates, the band Spare Snare, Danny Wilson and the Indie rock bands The View and The Law hail from Dundee. The View's debut album went to number one in the UK charts in January 2007. Ricky Ross of Deacon Blue and singer-songwriter KT Tunstall are former pupils of the High School of Dundee, although Tunstall is not a native of the city. The Northern Irish indie rock band Snow Patrol was formed by students at the University of Dundee, Brian Molko, lead singer of Placebo, grew up in the city. At the end of June, Dundee hosts an annual blues festival known as the Dundee Blues Bonanza.
Television and radio
Dundee is home to one of eleven BBC Scotland broadcasting centres, located within the Nethergate Centre. STV North's Tayside news and advertising operations are based in the Seabraes area of the city, from where an STV News Tayside opt-out bulletin is broadcast, (though not on Digital Satellite), within the nightly regional news programme, STV News at Six.
The city has three local radio stations. Radio Tay was launched on 17 October 1980. The station split frequencies in January 1995 launching Tay FM for a younger audience and Tay AM playing classic hits. In 1999, Discovery 102 was launched, later to be renamed Wave 102.
The city has a community internet TV station called The Dundee Channel which launched on 1 September 2009
Dundee has two professional football teams; Dundee and Dundee United who play at Dens Park and Tannadice Park, respectively. Their stadiums are closer together than any senior football club pair in the UK. Dundee is one of only three British cities to have produced two European Cup semi-finalists. Dundee lost to A.C. Milan in 1963 and Dundee United lost to A.S. Roma in 1984. Dundee also reached the semi-finals of the forerunner to the UEFA Cup in 1968 and Dundee United were runners-up in the UEFA Cup in 1987. There are also seven junior football teams in the area: Dundee North End, East Craigie, Lochee Harp, Lochee United, Dundee Violet, Broughty Athletic JFC and Downfield.
The city is home to the Dundee Stars who play out of the Dundee Ice Arena. They will be competing in the Elite Ice Hockey League from the 2010/2011 season which is the top league in Britain and it also includes two other Scottish teams which are the Edinburgh Capitals and the Braehead Clan.
The city is also home to five rugby union teams – Dundee High School Former Pupils rugby club who play in the First Division of the Scottish Hydro Electric Premiership and Morgan Academy Former Pupils which plays in the Third Division of the Scottish Hydro Electric Premiership. Furthermore, Harris Academy F.P.R.F.C, Panmure R.F.C. and Stobswell R.F.C. also operate in the city and participate in the Scottish Hydro Electric Caledonia League Division 2 (Midlands). Other clubs operating in the city include Menzieshill Hockey Club; Dundee Northern Lights floorball club, Dundee Hawkhill Harriers and Dundee City Aquatics.
Dundee and the surrounding area is supplied with water by Scottish Water. Dundee, along with parts of Perthshire and Angus is supplied from Lintrathen and Backwater reservoirs in Glen Isla. Electricity distribution is by Scottish Hydro Electric plc, part of the Scottish and Southern Energy group.
Waste management is handled by Dundee City Council. There is a kerbside recycling scheme that currently only serves 15,500 households in Dundee. Cans, glass and plastic bottles are collected on a weekly basis. Compostable material and non-recyclable material are collected on alternate weeks. Paper is collected for recycling on a four-weekly basis.
Recycling centres and points are located at a number of locations in Dundee. Items accepted include, steel and aluminium cans, cardboard, paper, electrical equipment, engine oil, fridges and freezers, garden waste, gas bottles, glass, liquid food and drinks cartons, plastic bottles, plastic carrier bags, rubble, scrap metal, shoes and handbags, spectacles, textiles, tin foil, wood and yellow pages. The Dundee City Council area currently has a recycling rate of 31%.
Healthcare is supplied in the area by NHS Tayside. Ninewells Hospital, is the only hospital with an accident and emergency department in the area. Primary Health Care in Dundee is supplied by a number of General Practices. Dundee, along with the rest of Scotland is served by the Scottish Ambulance Service.
Law enforcement is provided by Tayside Police and Dundee is served by Tayside Fire and Rescue Service.
Dundee maintains cultural, economic and educational ties with six twin cities:
- - – Orléans, France (1946)
- - – Zadar, Croatia (1959)
- - – Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany (1962)
- - - Alexandria, Virginia, United States (1974)
- - – Nablus, Palestinian territories (1980)
- – Dubai Municipality, United Arab Emirates