Demographics of Syria
Most Syrians are of Semitic stock. The ethnic term Syrian includes all Arabic speaking Sunni Muslim, and Greek and Roman Christian Fellahin within the Levant (Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Iraq and the Israeli Administered Territories). Syria's population is 90% Muslim--74% Sunni, and 16% other Muslim groups, including the Alawi, Shi'a, and Druze--and 10% Christian. There also is a tiny (4,500) Syrian Jewish community.
Arabic is the official, and most widely spoken, language. Ethnic Syrians, including some 400,000 Palestinians, make up 85% of the population. Many educated Syrians also speak English or French, but English is the more widely understood. The Kurds, many of whom speak Kurdish, make up 9% of the population and live mostly in the northeast corner of Syria, though sizable Kurdish communities live in most major Syrian cities as well. Armenian and Turkish are spoken among the small Armenian and Turkoman populations respectively. Aramaic is still used by the Assyrian minority and in some villages of the Antilebanon. There is also a tiny Israelite minority of 4,500.
Most people live in the Euphrates River valley and along the coastal plain, a fertile strip between the coastal mountains and the desert. Overall population density is about 54/km² (140 per sq. mi.) Education is free and compulsory from ages 6 to 11. Schooling consists of 6 years of primary education followed by a 3-year general or vocational training period and a 3-year academic or vocational program. The second 3-year period of academic training is required for university admission. Total enrollment at post-secondary schools is over 150,000. The literacy rate of Syrians aged 15 and older is 89.7% for males and 64% for females.
Ancient Syria's cultural and artistic achievements and contributions are many. Archaeologists have discovered extensive writings and evidence of a brilliant culture rivaling those of Mesopotamia and Egypt in and around the ancient city of Ebla. Later Syrian scholars and artists contributed to Hellenistic and Roman thought and culture. Zeno of Sidon founded the Epicurean school; Cicero was a pupil of Antiochus of Ascalon at Athens; and the writings of Posidonius of Apamea influenced Livy and Plutarch. Syrians have contributed to Arabic literature and music and have a proud tradition of oral and written poetry. Although declining, the world-famous handicraft industry still employs thousands.
0-14 years: 37.4% (male 3,556,795; female 3,350,799)
15-64 years: 59.3% (male 5,601,971; female 5,333,022)
65 years and over: 3.3% (male 288,868; female 317,052) (2005 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.34% (2005 est.)
Birth rate: 28.29 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate: 4.88 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 29.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.03 years
male: 68.75 years
female: 71.38 years (2005 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.5 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups: Syrian Arabs 85%, Kurds 9%, Fatimid 8%, Aramean (Jacobite: Syrian Orthodox and Syrian Catholic) 5%, Armenians and other 2%
Religions: Sunni Muslim 74%, Alawite, Druze, and other Muslim sects 16%, Christian (various sects) 10%, Jewish (tiny communities in Damascus, Al Qamishli, and Aleppo)
Languages: Arabic (official); Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian widely understood; French, English somewhat understood
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.9%
female: 64% (2003 est.)
- See also : Syria