|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1860s 1870s 1880s – 1890s – 1900s 1910s 1920s|
|Years:||1887 1888 1889 – 1890 – 1891 1892 1893|
Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar).
Events of 1890
January - March
- January 1
- January 2
- Steamship Persia wrecked off Corsica: 130 lives lost.
- Alice Sanger becomes the first female staffer in the White House.
- January 25
- United Mine Workers of America is founded.
- Nellie Bly completes her round-the-world journey in 72 days.
- February 17 - British steamship Duburg wrecked in China Sea: 400 lives lost.
- March 1
- British steamship Quetia foundered in Lorres Straits; 124 lives lost.
- March 1 - Léon Bourgeois succeeds Ernest Constans as French Minister of the Interior.
- March 4 - The longest bridge in Britain, the Forth Bridge (1,710 ft) in Scotland, is opened.
- March 8 - North Dakota State University is founded in Fargo, North Dakota.
- March 20 - Wilhelm II of Germany fires Otto von Bismarck.
- March 27 - A tornado strikes Louisville, Kentucky, killing 76 people and injuring 200.
- March 28 - Washington State University is founded in Pullman, Washington.
April - June
- May 12 - The first ever official County Championship cricket match begins in Bristol. Yorkshire beats Gloucestershire by eight wickets.
- May 31 - The 5-story skylight Arcade opens in Cleveland, Ohio.
- June 1 - The United States Census Bureau begins using Herman Hollerith's tabulating machine to count census returns.
- June 12 - In Michigan, the wooden steamer Ryan was lost near Thunder Bay Island.
July - September
- July 2 - The Sherman Anti-Trust Act and Sherman Silver Purchase Act become United States law.
- July 3 - Idaho is admitted as the 43rd U.S. State.
- July 10 - Wyoming is admitted as the 44th U.S. State.
- July 27 - Vincent van Gogh shoots himself in the stomach and dies two days later.
- July - Politics of Japan - first general election for the House of Representatives of Japan.
- August 6 - At Auburn Prison in New York, William Kemmler becomes the first person to be executed in the electric chair.
- September 19 - Turkish frigate Ertogrul foundered off Japan: 540 lives lost.
October - December
- October 8 - First flight of Clement Ader's airplane "Eole" In Satory, France. In Greek mythology, Aeolus is the god of the winds.
- October 11 - In Washington, DC, the Daughters of the American Revolution is founded.
- October 13
- In Michigan, the schooner J.F. Warner is lost at Thunder Bay.
- The Delta Chi Fraternity is founded by 11 law students at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York.
- November 23 - King William III of the Netherlands dies without a male heir, and his daughter Princess Wilhelmina becomes Queen, causing Luxembourg (who required a male heir) to declare independence.
- November 29
- The Meiji Constitution goes into effect in Japan and the first Diet convenes.
- In West Point, New York, the United States Navy defeats the United States Army 24 to 0 in the first Army-Navy football game.
- November - Scotland Yard, headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, moves to a building on London's Victoria Embankment, as the New Scotland Yard.
- December 27 - British steamship Shanghai burned in China Sea: 101 lives lost.
- December 29 - Battle at Wounded Knee, South Dakota: the US 7th Cavalry Regiment tries to disarm camp & shooting starts: 153 Lakota Sioux and 25 troops are killed; about 150 flee the scene (see Wounded Knee Massacre).
- The corrugated cardboard box is invented by Robert Gair, a Brooklyn printer who developed production of paper-board boxes in 1879.
- U.S. Census - Herman Hollerith devises a method using punch cards (like Jacquard's loom) to tabulate census data by machine. (see also History of computing hardware). Hollerith's company eventually becomes IBM.
- Prosecution of Edward King, Anglican bishop of Lincoln for using ritualistic practices ends.
- The United States city of Boise, Idaho drills the first geothermal well.
- Brown Trout introduced into the upper Firehole River in Yellowstone National Park
- High School Cadets was written by John Phillip Sousa
|Ab urbe condita||2643|
|British Regnal year||53 Vict. 1 – 54 Vict. 1|
|Chinese calendar|| 己丑年十二月十一日
— to —庚寅年十一月二十日
|- Vikram Samvat||1946–1947|
|- Shaka Samvat||1812–1813|
|- Kali Yuga||4991–4992|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||890–891|
|Japanese calendar|| Meiji 23
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||22 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2433|
January - June
- January 1 - Anton Melik, Slovenian geographer (d. 1966)
- January 4 - Victor Lustig, Bohemian-born con artist (d. 1947)
- January 9
- January 11 - Oswald de Andrade, Brazilian Modernist writer (d.1954)
- January 19 - Élise Rivet, French Roman Catholic nun and war heroine (d. 1945)
- January 22 - Fred M. Vinson, Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1953)
- January 28 - Robert Stroud, Studied birds while serving time in prison (d. 1963)
- February 10 - Boris Pasternak, Russian writer, Nobel Prize laureate (declined) (died 1960)
- February 14 - Nina Hamnett, Welsh artist (died 1956)
- February 17 - Ronald Fisher, English biologist (died 1962)
- February 18 - Adolphe Menjou, American actor (died 1963)
- February 24 - Marjorie Main, American actress (died 1975)
- February 25 - Dame Myra Hess, English pianist (died 1965)
- February 27 - Freddie Keppard, American jazz musician (died 1933)
- March 3 - Norman Bethune, Canadian doctor and humanitarian (died 1939)
- March 9 - (new style) Vyacheslav Molotov, Soviet politician (died 1986)
- March 11 - Vannevar Bush, American engineer, inventor, and politician (died 1974)
- March 20
- March 28 - Paul Whiteman, American bandleader (died 1967)
- March 31 - William Lawrence Bragg, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (died 1971)
- April 6 - Anthony Fokker, Dutch aircraft manufacturer (died 1939)
- April 7 - Marjory Stoneman Douglas, American conservationist and writer (died 1998)
- April 11 - Donna Rachele Mussolini, Italian, wife of Benito Mussolini (died 1979)
- April 16 - Fred Root, English cricketer (d. 1954)
- April 20 - Maurice Duplessis, premier of Québec, known as "Le Chef" (d. 1959)
- May 4 - Franklin Carmichael, Canadian artist (died 1945)
- May 10 - Alfred Jodl, German general (died 1946)
- May 11 - Woodall Rodgers, mayor of Dallas, Texas (died 1961)
- May 15 - Katherine Anne Porter, American author (died 1980)
- May 19 - Ho Chi Minh, Prime minister/president of North Vietnam (died 1969)
- May 23 - Herbert Marshall, English actor (died 1966)
- June 6 - Ted Lewis, American jazz musician and entertainer (died 1971)
- June 16 - Stan Laurel, British actor (died 1965)
- June 26 - Jeanne Eagels, American actress (died 1929)
July - December
- July 18 - Frank Forde, Australian Prime Minister (died 1983)
- July 22 - Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy, American philanthropist and matriarch of the Kennedy family (died 1995)
- August 4 - Erich Weinert, German writer, Communist, and member of the KPD. (died 1953)
- August 5 - Erich Kleiber, Austrian conductor (died 1956)
- August 10 - Angus L. Macdonald, Nova Scotia Premier (died 1954)
- August 15 - Jacques Ibert, French composer (died 1962)
- August 15 - Elizabeth Bolden, formerly world's oldest living person (died 2006)
- August 18 - Walther Funk, German Nazi politician (died 1960)
- August 20 - H. P. Lovecraft, American writer (died 1937)
- August 24 - Duke Kahanamoku, American swimmer (died 1968)
- September 10 - Elsa Schiaparelli, French couturiere (died 1973)
- September 15 - Agatha Christie, English writer (died 1976)
- September 15 - Frank Martin, Swiss composer (died 1974)
- September 20 - Jelly Roll Morton, American jazz pianist, composer, and bandleader (died 1941)
- October 2 - Groucho Marx, American comedian (died 1977)
- October 8 - Eddie Rickenbacker, American WWI fighter pilot (died 1973)
- October 13 - Conrad Richter, American novelist and short story writer (d. 1968)
- October 14 - Dwight David Eisenhower, U.S. general and President of the United States (died 1969)
- October 16 - Michael Collins, Irish patriot (died 1922)
- October 16 - Paul Strand, American photographer (died 1976)
- October 17 - Roy Kilner, English cricketer (died 1928)
- November 20 - Leon Cadore, American baseball pitcher (died 1968)
- November 22 - Charles de Gaulle, President of France (died 1970)
- November 23 - El Lissitzky, Russian artist and architect (died 1941)
- December 5 - David Bomberg, English painter (died 1957)
- December 8 - Bohuslav Martinů, Czech composer (died 1959)
- December 11 - Carlos Gardel, Argentine tango singer (died 1935)
- December 20 - Jaroslav Heyrovský, Czech chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (died 1967)
- December 21 - Hermann Joseph Muller, American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (died 1967)
- December 26 - Uncle Charlie Osborne, Appalachian fiddler (died 1992)
- December 30 - Lanoe Hawker, British fighter pilot (died 1916)
- date unknown
January - June
- January 18 - King Amadeus I of Spain (born 1845)
- February 22
- John Jacob Astor III, American businessman (born 1822)
- Carl Heinrich Bloch, Danish painter (born 1834)
- March 3 - Innocenzo da Berzo, Capuchin friar (born 1844)
- March 7 - Karl Rudolf Friedenthal, Prussian statesman (born 1827)
- March 9 - Sir Mangaldas Nathubhoy, politician (born 1832)
- April 1 - David Wilber, American politician (born 1820)
- April 11 - Joseph Carey Merrick ( Elephant Man), English oddity (born 1862)
- June 24 - Subba Row, Theosophist (born 1856)
- June 30 - Samuel Parkman Tuckerman, American composer (born 1819)
July - December
- July 9 - Clinton B. Fisk, American philanthropist and temperance activist (born 1828)
- July 15 - Gottfried Keller, Swiss writer (born 1819)
- July 29 - Vincent van Gogh, Dutch painter (born 1853)
- August 11 - John Henry Newman, English Roman Catholic Cardinal (born 1801)
- October 4 - Catherine Booth, the Mother of The Salvation Army (born 1829)
- October 20- Sir Richard Francis Burton, Explorer, Linguist, Soldier. (born 1820)
- October 26 - Carlo Collodi, Italian writer (born 1826)
- November 3 - Ulrich Ochsenbein, member of the Swiss Federal Council (born 1811)
- November 8 - César Franck, Belgian composer and organist (born 1822)
- November 11 - Charles-Marie David de Mayréna, king of Sedang
- November 23 - King William III of the Netherlands (born 1817)
- November 24 - August Belmont, Sr., Prussian-born financier (born 1816)
- December 15 - Sitting Bull, Native American chief, (born c. 1831)
- December 21 - Johanne Luise Heiberg, Danish actress (born 1812)
- December 26 - Heinrich Schliemann, German archaeologist (born 1822)
- December 31 - Pancha Carrasco, Costa Rican war heroine (born 1826)
- date unknown - Comanche, the horse that was the sole survivor of Custer's cavalry at the Battle of Little Bighorn.