|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1810s 1820s 1830s – 1840s – 1850s 1860s 1870s|
|Years:||1844 1845 1846 – 1847 – 1848 1849 1850|
Year 1847 (MDCCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar).
Events of 1847
January - June
- January 4 - Samuel Colt sells his first revolver pistol to the United States government.
- January 13 - The Treaty of Cahuenga ended the fighting of the Mexican-American War in California.
- January 16 - John C. Fremont is appointed Governor of the new California Territory.
- January 30 - Yerba Buena, California is renamed San Francisco.
- February 5 - A rescue effort, called the First Relief, leaves Johnson's Ranch to save the ill-fated Donner Party. These California bound emigrants became snowbound in the Sierra Nevada in the winter of 1846–1847, and some had resorted to cannibalism to survive.
- February 22 - Mexican-American War: The Battle of Buena Vista - 5,000 American troops under General Zachary Taylor use their superiority in artillery to drive off 15,000 Mexican troops under Antonio López de Santa Anna defeating the Mexicans the next day.
- March 1
- The state of Michigan formally abolishes the death penalty.
- Faustin Soulouque declares himself Emperor of Haiti.
- March 9 - Mexican-American War: United States forces under General Winfield Scott invade Mexico near Veracruz.
- March 14 - Verdi's Macbeth (opera) premieres at Teatro della Pergola in Florence, Italy.
- March 29 - Mexican-American War: United States forces led by General Winfield Scott take Veracruz after a siege.
- April 15 - The Lawrence School, Sanawar is established.
- May 7 - In Philadelphia, the American Medical Association (AMA) is founded.
- June 1 - First congress of the Communist League, in London.
- June 27 - The first train journey in Denmark takes place, the train drove from Copenhagen to Roskilde
July - December
- July 1 - The United States issues its first postage stamps.
- July 24 - After 17 months of travel, Brigham Young leads 148 Mormon pioneers into Salt Lake Valley, resulting in the establishment of Salt Lake City.
- July 26 - Liberia gains independence.
- July 29 - Cumberland School of Law founded at Cumberland University in Lebanon, Tennessee. At the end of 1847 only 15 law schools exist in the United States.
- August 12 - US troops of general Winfield Scott begin to advance along the aqueduct around Chalco and Xochimilco lakes in Mexico
- August 20 - US troops defeat Mexican troops in Valencia, Mexico
- September 30 - The Vegetarian Society was formed in the United Kingdom. It remains the oldest in the world.
- October - Charlotte Brontë publishes Jane Eyre under the pen name of Currer Bell
- October 12 - German inventor and industrialist Werner von Siemens founds Siemens AG & Halske.
- October 31 - Theta Delta Chi founded at Union College.
- December 21 - Abd al-Kader surrenders and is imprisoned by the French.
- Ottoman Empire cedes Abadan Island to the Persian Empire.
- Founding of the Architectural Association School of Architecture
- Emily Brontë publishes Wuthering Heights under the pen name of Ellis Bell.
- The North Carolina General Assembly incorporates the railroad town of Goldsborough, and the Wayne county seat is moved to the new town.
- Radley College, a famous English public school was founded.
- Mexican-American War (1846-1848)
- Great Irish Famine (1845-1849). This was the worst year of the famine, and is referred to as Black 47.
- New Zealand land wars (1843-1872)
|Ab urbe condita||2600|
|British Regnal year||10 Vict. 1 – 11 Vict. 1|
|Chinese calendar|| 丙午年十一月十五日
— to —丁未年十一月廿四日
|- Vikram Samvat||1903–1904|
|- Shaka Samvat||1769–1770|
|- Kali Yuga||4948–4949|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||847–848|
|Japanese calendar|| Kōka 4
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||65 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2390|
January - June
- January 28 - Dorus Rijkers, Dutch naval hero (d. 1928)
- February 8 - Hugh Price Hughes, Methodist Social Reformer, First Superintendent of the West London Mission (d. 1902)
- February 11 - Thomas Alva Edison, American inventor (d. 1931)
- February 15 - Robert Fuchs, Austrian composer (d. 1927)
- February 16 - Philipp Scharwenka, Polish-German composer (d. 1917)
- March 3
- March 4 - Karl Bayer, Austrian chemist (d. 1904)
- March 14 - Castro Alves, Brazilian poet (d. 1871)
- March 27 - Otto Wallach, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1931)
- April 10 - Joseph Pulitzer, Hungarian-born journalist and newspaper publisher (d. 1911)
- May 7 - Archibald Primrose, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1929)
- June 8 - Ida Saxton McKinley, U.S. First Lady (d. 1907)
- June 11 - Millicent Fawcett, British suffragist and feminist (d. 1929)
July - December
- July 9 - Wong Fei Hung, Chinese healer and revolutionary (d. 1924)
- July 25 - Paul Langerhans, German pathologist and biologist (d. 1888)
- August 14 - Robert Comtesse, member of the Swiss Federal Council (d. 1922)
- September 5 - Jesse James, American outlaw (d. 1882)
- October 1 - Annie Besant, English women's rights activist, writer and orator.(d. 1933)
- October 2 - Paul von Hindenburg, President of Germany (d. 1934)
- October 14 - Chiquinha Gonzaga, Brazilian composer (d. 1935)
- November 26 - Dagmar of Denmark, empress of Tsar Alexander III of Russia (d. 1928)
- December 7 - George Grossmith, English actor and comic writer (d. 1912)
- December 18 - Augusta Holmès, French composer (d. 1903)
- November 30 - Afonso Pena, Brazilian president (d. 1909)
- December 17 - Michel-Joseph Maunoury, French General during World War I (d. 1923)
- December 28 - Giuseppe Maria Giulietti, Italian explorer (d. 1881)
- date unknown - Hale Johnson, American temperance movement leader (d. 1902)
- January - Abbasgulu Bakikhanov, Azerbaijani writer (b. 1794)
- January 19 - Charles Bent, first Governor of New Mexico Territory (assassinated)
- March 9 - Mary Anning, British paleontologist (b. 1799)
- April 30 - Archduke Charles of Austria, Austrian general (b. 1771)
- May 14 - Fanny Mendelssohn, German composer and pianist (b. 1805)
- May 29 - Emmanuel, marquis de Grouchy, French marshal (b. 1766)
- July 3 - Matěj Kopecký, puppeteer (b. 1775)
- September 4 - František Vladislav Hek, Czech patriot (b. 1769)
- September 13 - Nicolas Oudinot, French marshal (b. 1767)
- October 3 - Charles Hatchett, English chemist (b. 1765)
- October 22 - Negus Sahle Selassie of Shewa
- November 4 - Felix Mendelssohn, German composer (b. 1809)
- December 14 - Manuel José Arce, Central American politician (b. 1787)