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|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1810s 1820s 1830s – 1840s – 1850s 1860s 1870s|
|Years:||1840 1841 1842 – 1843 – 1844 1845 1846|
Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar).
Events of 1843
January - March
- February 6 - The Virginia Minstrels perform the first minstrel show ( Bowery Amphitheatre, New York City).
- February 11 - Giuseppe Verdi's opera I Lombardi premieres in Milan
- February 14 - The event that inspired the song Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite! is held.
- March 15 - Victoria, British Columbia, was founded by the Hudson's Bay Company as a trading post and fort.
April - June
- May 4 - Natal proclaimed a British colony
- May 18 - The Disruption of the Church of Scotland took place in Edinburgh
- May 22 - The first major wagon train headed for the northwest sets out with one thousand pioneers from Elm Grove, Missouri on the Oregon Trail.
- May 23 - Chile takes possession of the Strait of Magellan.
July - September
- July 1
- Ulysses S. Grant graduates from West Point 21st from a class of 39.
- John J. Peck graduates from West Point 8th from a class of 39.
- July 19 - The SS Great Britain is launched from Bristol.
- August 15 - Tivoli Gardens, one of the oldest still intact amusement parks in the world, opened in Copenhagen, Denmark.
October - December
- October 13 - In New York City, Henry Jones and 11 others found B'nai B'rith (the oldest Jewish service organization in the world).
- November 11 - First publication of Hans Christian Andersen's The Ugly Duckling.
- November 28 - Ka La Ku'oko'a: Hawaiian Independence Day. The Kingdom of Hawai`i was officially recognized by the United Kingdom and France as an independent nation.
- December 19 - First publication of Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol.
- The world's first commercial Christmas cards are printed by Sir Henry Cole in London.
- James Joule quantifies the conversion of work into heat
- In Barbados, Samuel Jackman Prescod, is the first black person elected to the Barbados House of Assembly
- Danish government re-establishes althing in Iceland as an advisory body
- First tunnel under Thames is finished
- Argentina supports Rosas of Uruguay and begins a siege of Montevideo
- Quaternions are discovered by William Rowan Hamilton.
- The Economist is first published.
- Bishop's University is founded.
- Abbeville is founded by descendants of Acadians from Nova Scotia.
- First publication of Edgar Allan Poe's short story The Tell-Tale Heart.
- The world does not end, contrary to prediction by American preacher William Miller.
- Germans from the Black Forest region of Southern Baden migrate to Venezuela
|Ab urbe condita||2596|
|British Regnal year||6 Vict. 1 – 7 Vict. 1|
|Chinese calendar|| 壬寅年十二月初一日
— to —癸卯年十一月十一日
|- Vikram Samvat||1899–1900|
|- Shaka Samvat||1765–1766|
|- Kali Yuga||4944–4945|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||843–844|
|Japanese calendar|| Tenpō 14
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||69 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2386|
January - June
- January 8 - John H. Moffitt, American politician (d. 1926)
- January 10 - Frank James, American outlaw (d. 1915)
- January 29 - William McKinley, 25th President of the United States (d. 1901)
- April 4 - William Jackson, photographer (d. 1942)
- April 15 - Henry James, American writer (d. 1916)
- April 25 - Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, third child of Queen Victoria (d. 1878)
- May 21 - Charles Albert Gobat, Swiss politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1914)
- June 3 - King Frederick VIII of Denmark (d. 1912)
- June 9 - Bertha von Suttner, Austrian writer and pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1914)
- June 15 - Edvard Grieg, Norwegian composer (d. 1907)
- June 30 - Sir Ernest Satow, British diplomat and scholar (d. 1928)
July - December
- July 7 - Camillo Golgi, Italian physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1926)
- July 29 - Johannes Schmidt, German linguist (d. 1901)
- August 1 - Robert Todd Lincoln, American statesman and businessman (d. 1926)
- August 20 - Christina Nilsson,Swedish operatic soprano (d. 1921)
- August 31 - Georg von Hertling, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1919)
- November 25 - Henry Ware Eliot, American industrialist, philanthropist and the father of T. S. Eliot (d. 1919)
- November 27 - Cornelius Vanderbilt II, American railway magnate (d. 1899)
- December 11 - Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch, German physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1910)
- date unknown - Owon, Korean painter (d. 1897)
- probable - Pierre Lallement, French inventor of the bicycle (d. 1891)
January - June
- January 11 - Francis Scott Key, American lawyer and lyricist (b. 1779)
- March 21 - Robert Southey, English poet (b. 1774)
- March 25 - Robert Murray M'Cheyne, Scottish clergyman (b. 1813)
- March 27 - Karl Salomo Zachariae Von Lingenthal, German jurist (b. 1769)
- April 15 - Noah Webster, American lexicographer (b. 1758)
- April 17 - Samuel Morey, American inventor (b. 1762)
- June 1 - William Abbot, English actor (b. 1798)
- June 6 - Friedrich Hölderlin, German writer (b. 1770)