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|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1800s 1810s 1820s – 1830s – 1840s 1850s 1860s|
|Years:||1836 1837 1838 – 1839 – 1840 1841 1842|
Year 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar).
Events of 1839
January - March
- January 9 - The French Academy of Sciences announces the Daguerreotype photography process.
- January 19 - British East India Company captures Aden
- January 20 - In the Battle of Yungay, Chile defeats a Peruvian and Bolivian alliance.
- February 11 - The University of Missouri is established, becoming the first public university west of the Mississippi River.
- February 24 - William Otis receives a patent for the steam shovel.
- March 5 - Longwood University founded, Farmville, Virginia.
- March 7 - Baltimore City College, the third public high school in the United States, is established in Baltimore, Maryland.
- March 23 - First recorded use of "OK" oll korrect ( Boston Morning Post).
- March 26 - The first Henley Royal Regatta is held
- March 29 - British naturalist Charles Darwin marries his cousin Emma Wedgwood.
April - June
- April - Sultan Mahmud II of Turkey declares war on Mehemet Ali of Egypt in revenge.
- April 9 - The world's first commercial electric telegraph line comes into operation alongside the Great Western Railway line from Paddington station to West Drayton.
- April 19 - The Treaty of London establishes Belgium as a kingdom.
- June 22 - Louis Daguerre receives patent for his camera (commercially available by September with the prize of 400 Francs)
July - September
- July 1 - Slave rebellion of Amistad
- July 1 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Mahmud II (1808-1839) to Abd-ul-Mejid (1839-1861).
- July 23 - British forces capture the fortress city of Ghazni, Afghanistan in the Battle of Ghazni during the First Anglo-Afghan War
- August 8 - The Beta Theta Pi fraternity was founded in Oxford, Ohio
- August 19 - French government gives Louis Daguerre a pension and gives the daguerreotype "for the whole world"
- August 23 - British forces seized Hong Kong as a base, as it prepared to wage war against Qing China. The ensuing 3-year conflict would become known as the First Opium War.
- September 9 - In the Great Fire of Mobile, Alabama hundreds of buildings are burned.
October - December
- October 3 - In the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies a railway between Napoli and Portici (7.4km length) is inaugurated by H.M. the King Ferdinand II of Bourbon. It is the first railway in the Italian peninsula.
- October 15 - Abd al-Kader declares a jihad against the French.
- November 4 - The Newport Rising was the last large-scale armed rebellion against authority in mainland Britain.
- November 11 - The Virginia Military Institute is founded in Lexington, Virginia.
- November 17 - Giuseppe Verdi's first opera, Oberto, conte di San Bonifacio opens in Milan.
- November 25 - A disastrous cyclone slams India with terrible winds and a giant 40 foot storm surge, wiping out the port city of Coringa. 300,000 people die.
- November 27 - In Boston, Massachusetts, the American Statistical Association is founded.
- In the United States, the first state law permitting women to own property is passed in Jackson, Mississippi.
- The first parallax measurement of the distance to Alpha Centauri is published by Thomas Henderson.
- Michael Faraday publishes "Experimental Researches in Electricity" clarifying the true nature of electricity.
- Excavation on Copan begins.
- Half of the Limburg province of Belgium was added to the Netherlands, since 1839 there is a Belgian Limburg and Dutch Limburg.
- Episcopal High School in Alexandria, Virginia is founded.
- Charles Goodyear vulcanizes rubber.
- First Opium War (1839-1842)
|Ab urbe condita||2592|
|British Regnal year||2 Vict. 1 – 3 Vict. 1|
|Chinese calendar|| 戊戌年十一月十六日
— to —己亥年十一月廿六日
|- Vikram Samvat||1895–1896|
|- Shaka Samvat||1761–1762|
|- Kali Yuga||4940–4941|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||839–840|
|Japanese calendar|| Tenpō 10
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||73 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2382|
January - June
- January 19 - Paul Cézanne, French painter (d. 1906)
- February 11 - Josiah Willard Gibbs American physicist and chemist (d. 1903)
- February 22 - Francis Pharcellus Church, American editor and publisher (d. 1906)
- March 9 - Phoebe Knapp, American hymn writer (d. 1908)
- March 16 - John Butler Yeats, Northern Irish artist (d. 1922)
- March 21 - Modest Mussorgsky, Russian composer (d. 1881)
- April 12 - Nikolai Przhevalsky, Russian explorer (d. 1888)
- April 30 - Floriano Peixoto, Brazilian president (d.1895)
- June 17 - Arthur Tooth, Anglican clergyman prosecuted for Ritualist practices in the 1870s (d. 1931)
- June 21 - Machado de Assis, Brazilian author (d.1908)
July - December
- July 8 - John Davison Rockefeller, American industrialist and philanthropist (d. 1937)
- July 17 - Ephraim Shay, inventor of the Shay locomotive (d. 1916)
- November 20 - Christian Wilberg, German painter (d. 1882)
- December 5 - George Armstrong Custer, American cavalry officer (d. 1876)
- December 12 - Caroline Lake Ingalls, née Quiner, mother of author Laura Ingalls Wilder (d. April 20, 1924)
January - June
- February 7 - Karl August Nicander, Swedish poet (b. 1799)
- March 2 - Charlotte Napoléone Bonaparte, niece of Napoleon I of France (b. 1802)
- April 1 - Benjamin Pierce, U.S. politician (b. 1757)
- April 2 - Hezekiah Niles, American editor and publisher (b. 1777)
- April 4 - Kaahumanu II, queen of Hawaii
- April 11 - John Galt, Scottish novelist (b. 1779)
- April 22 - Denis Davydov, Russian general and poet (b. 1784)
- May 17 - Archibald Alison, Scottish author (b. 1757)
July - December
- July 8 - Fernando Sor, Spanish composer (b. 1778)
- July 15 - Winthrop Mackworth Praed, English politician and poet (b. 1802)
- August 10 - John St Aubyn, British fossil collector (b. 1758)
- August 22 - Benjamin Lundy, American abolitionist (b. 1789)
- August 28 - William Smith, English geologist and cartographer (b. 1769)
- October - William Light, British Army colonel and the first Surveyor-General of South Australia (b. 1786)
- November 15 - William Murdoch, Scottish inventor (b. 1754)
- December 3 - Frederick VI, King of Denmark, ex-King of Norway (b. 1768)
- December 15 - Ignaz Aurelius Fessler, court councillor and minister to Alexander I (b. 1756)