|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1800s 1810s 1820s – 1830s – 1840s 1850s 1860s|
|Years:||1830 1831 1832 – 1833 – 1834 1835 1836|
|1833 in topic:|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature – Music|
|Australia – Canada – France – Germany – Mexico – Philippines – South Africa – US – UK|
|Rail Transport – Science – Sports|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial Governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2586|
|British Regnal year||3 Will. 4 – 4 Will. 4|
|Chinese calendar|| 壬辰年十一月十一日
— to —癸巳年十一月廿一日
|- Vikram Samvat||1889–1890|
|- Shaka Samvat||1755–1756|
|- Kali Yuga||4934–4935|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||833–834|
|Japanese calendar|| Tenpō 4
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||79 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2376|
Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar.
- January 3 – Reassertion of British sovereignty over the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic.
- February 6 – His Royal Highness Prince Otto Friedrich Ludwig of Bavaria assumes the title His Majesty Othon the First, by the Grace of God, King of Greece, Prince of Bavaria.
- March 4 – Andrew Jackson is sworn in for his second term as President of the United States.
- May 6
- May 25 – The Chilean Constitution of 1833 is promulgated.
- June 5 – Ada Lovelace is introduced to Charles Babbage by Mary Somerville.
- June 29 – William Fraser Tolmie experiences an earthquake at Fort Nisqually. His journal entry records the first written eyewitness account of an earthquake in the Puget Sound region.
- July 5 – Liberal Wars – Battle of Cape St. Vincent: The forces of Queen Maria II of Portugal win decisively.
- August 1
- August 3 – In Switzerland, troops of the city of Basel march on rebels in Liestal, but are beaten back at the Battle of Hülftenschanz.
- August 12 – The city of Chicago is established at the estuary of the Chicago River by 350 settlers.
- August 18 – The Canadian ship SS Royal William sets out from Pictou, Nova Scotia on a 25-day passage of the Atlantic Ocean largely under steam to Gravesend, Kent, England.
- August 20 – Future United States President Benjamin Harrison is born in Ohio. From this date until the death of Former U.S. President James Madison on June 28 1836, there are a total of 18 Presidents of the United States (2 former, 1 current, and 15 known future) living; which is more than any other time period in U.S. history.
- August 26 – The Canton of Basel is partitioned by the Swiss Tagsatzung, to create the two half-cantons of Basel-City and Basel-Country.
- August 29 – The British Parliament enacts the Factory Acts limiting child labour (see also History of the United Kingdom).
- September 29 – Three-year old Isabella II becomes Queen of Spain, under the regency of her mother, Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. Her uncle Don Carlos, Conde de Molina challenges her claim, beginning the First Carlist War.
- November 12– November 13 – Stars Fell on Alabama: A spectacular occurrence of the Leonid meteor shower is observed in Alabama.
- November 25 – A major 8.7 earthquake strikes Sumatra.
- December 14 – Kaspar Hauser, a mysterious German youth, is stabbed, dying three days later on December 17.
- The dawn of biochemistry: The first enzyme, diastase, is discovered by Anselme Payen.
- Greece recaptures the Acropolis.
- H.R.H. Prince Mongkut of Siam founds the Dhammayut Buddhist reform movement.
- Foundation of:
- Kalamazoo College in Kalamazoo, Michigan
- Madras College, St Andrews
- Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio
- January 1 – Robert Lawson, New Zealand architect (d. 1902)
- January 2 – Frederick A. Johnson, American politician (d. 1893)
- January 18 – Joseph S. Skerrett, American admiral (d. 1897)
- February 6 – J.E.B. Stuart, Confederate general (d. 1864)
- February 11 – Melville Weston Fuller, 8th Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court (d. 1910)
- February 19 – Élie Ducommun, Swiss journalist and activist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1906)
- February 25 – John St. John, American temperance movement leader (d. 1916)
- February 28 – Alfred von Schlieffen, German field marshal (d. 1913)
- May 7 – Johannes Brahms, German composer (d. 1897)
- May 9 – Hermann von Spaun, Austro-Hungarian admiral (d. 1919)
- July 27 – Thomas George Bonney, English geologist (d. 1923)
- August 3 – Auguste Schmidt, German educator and womans' rights activist (d. 1902)
- August 20 – Benjamin Harrison, 23rd President of the United States (d. 1901)
- September 20 – Ernesto Teodoro Moneta, Italian pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1918)
- October 2 – William Corby, American Catholic priest (d. 1897)
- October 21 – Alfred Nobel, Swedish inventor of dynamite, creator of the Nobel Prize (d. 1896)
- November 6 – Jonas Lie, Norwegian author (d. 1908)
- November 9 – Émile Gaboriau, French writer (d. 1873)
- November 12 – Alexander Borodin, Russian composer (d. 1887)
- December 6 – Thaddeus C. Pound, American businessman and politician (d. 1914)
- December 7 – Rodrigo Augusto da Silva, Brazilian Senator and author of the Golden Law (d. 1889)
- January 10 – Adrien-Marie Legendre, French mathematician (b. 1752)
- January 16 – Banastre Tarleton, British general and politician (b. 1754)
- January 23 – Edward Pellew, 1st Viscount Exmouth, British admiral (b. 1757)
- April 7 – Antoni Radziwiłł, Polish politician (b. 1775)
- April 22 – Richard Trevithick, English inventor (b. 1771)
- May 5 – Sophia Campbell, Australian artist (b. 1777)
- May 15 – Edmund Kean, British actor (b. 1787)
- June 2 – Simon Byrne, Irish prize fighter (b. 1806)
- July 2 – Gervasio Antonio de Posadas, Argentine leader (b. 1757)
- July 5 – Nicéphore Niépce, French photography pioneer (b. 1765)
- July 20 – Ninian Edwards – Governor of Illinois and Senator from Illinois (b. 1775)
- July 22 – Joseph Forlenze – Italian ophthalmologist (b. 1757)
- July 23 – Anselmo de la Cruz, Chilean political figure (b. 1777)
- July 29 – William Wilberforce – British Politician and Abolitionist (b. 1759)
- September 7 – Hannah More, English religious writer, Romantic and philanthropist (b. 1745)
- September 15 – Arthur Hallam, English poet (b. 1811)
- September 27 – Roy, Ram Mohan, Hindu reformer (b. 1772)
- September 29 – King Ferdinand VII of Spain (b. 1784)
- October 16 – Andrei Bolotov, Russian agriculturalist and memoirist (b. 1738)
- November 23 – Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, French marshal (b. 1762)
- Samuel Sterett, American politician (b. 1758)