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|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1790s 1800s 1810s – 1820s – 1830s 1840s 1850s|
|Years:||1820 1821 1822 – 1823 – 1824 1825 1826|
Year 1823 (MDCCCXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar).
Events of 1823
- February 3 - First representation of Gioachino Rossini's Semiramide
- April 13 - Eleven-year-old Franz Liszt gives a concert after which he is personally congratulated by Ludwig van Beethoven.
- July 15 - Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls in Rome almost completely destroyed by fire
- September 10 - Simón Bolívar named President of Peru
- September 22 - Joseph Smith, Jr., says that he was directed by God through the angel Moroni to the place where the Golden plates are stored.
- September 28 - Pope Leo XII succeeds Pope Pius VII as the 252nd pope.
- November 15 - Chief Lone Horn, succeeds (probably) his father, and becomes chief of the Minneconjou Sioux; he will be chief until his death on 16 october1875.
- December 2 - Monroe Doctrine: USA separates the spheres of influence between Europe and the Americas.
- Orford Parish of East Hartford, Connecticut separates and is incorporated as the Town of Manchester by a special act of the Connecticut General Assembly.
- Ferdinand VII revokes the Spanish Constitution of 1812 and restores absolute monarchy (See also Mid-nineteenth century Spain)
- Official adoption of the word 'Gallivant' by Merriam-Webster's Dictionary
- The Olbers' paradox is described by the German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers.
- Jackson Male Academy, precursor of Union University, is founded in Tennessee.
- The Oxford Union is founded.
- William Webb Ellis credited with the birth of Rugby Union
|Ab urbe condita||2576|
|British Regnal year||3 Geo. 4 – 4 Geo. 4|
|Chinese calendar|| 壬午年十一月二十日
— to —癸未年十一月三十日
|- Vikram Samvat||1879–1880|
|- Shaka Samvat||1745–1746|
|- Kali Yuga||4924–4925|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||823–824|
|Japanese calendar|| Bunsei 6
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||89 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2366|
- January 1 - Sándor Petőfi, Hungarian poet and revolutionary (d. 1849)
- January 8 - Alfred Russel Wallace, British naturalist and biologist (d. 1913)
- January 27 - Edouard Lalo, French composer (d. 1892)
- February 27 - Ernest Renan, French philosopher and writer (d. 1892)
- March 14 - Théodore de Banville, French writer (d. 1891)
- March 20 - Ned Buntline, American publisher, writer, and publicist (d. 1886)
- March 23 - Schuyler Colfax, Vice President of the United States (d. 1885)
- April 3 - William Marcy Tweed, American political boss (d. 1878)
- April 23 - Abd-ul-Mejid, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1861)
- May 22 - Solomon Bundy, American politician (d. 1889)
- May 26 - William Pryor Letchworth, founder of Letchworth State Park
- June 13 David Breakenridge Read,Mayor of Toronto,d.1904
- June 21 - Jean Chacornac, French astronomer (d. 1873)
- August 10 - Hugh Stowell Brown, Manx preacher (d.1886)
- August 13 - Goldwin Smith, English historian (d. 1910)
- December 6 - Friedrich Max Müller, German Orientalist (d. 1900)
- date unknown - James Black, American temperance movement leader (d. 1893)
- January 21 - Gideon Olin, US politician (b. 1743)
- January 26 - Edward Jenner, English physician and medical researcher (b. 1749)
- February 7 - Ann Radcliffe, English writer (b. 1764)
- March 1 - Pierre-Jean Garat, opera singer (b. 1764)
- March 14
- Charles François Dumouriez, French general (b. 1739)
- John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent, British Royal Navy admiral (b. 1735)
- March 18 - Jean-Baptiste Breval, French cellist (b. 1753)
- June 1 - Louis Nicolas Davout, French marshal (b. 1770)
- August 20 - Pope Pius VII (b. 1740)
- August 22 - Lazare Carnot, French general, politician, and mathematician (b. 1753)
- September 11 - David Ricardo, English economist (b. 1772)
- September 23 - Matthew Baillie, Scottish physician and pathologist (b. 1761)
- November 9 - Vasily Kapnist, poet and dramatist (b. 1758)