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|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1770s 1780s 1790s – 1800s – 1810s 1820s 1830s|
|Years:||1806 1807 1808 – 1809 – 1810 1811 1812|
Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar).
Events of 1809
January - March
- January 5 - Treaty of the Dardanelles between Britain and the Ottoman Empire concluded.
- January 10 - French Marshal Jean Lannes begins the Siege of Zaragoza.
- January 16 - Peninsular War: The French defeat the British at the Battle of Corunna.
- February 3 - Illinois Territory was created.
- February 8 - Franz I of Austria declares war on France,
- February 11 - Robert Fulton patents the steamboat.
- February 12 - Charles Darwin and Abraham Lincoln were born.
- February 20 - A decision by the Supreme Court of the United States states that the power of the federal government is greater than any individual state.
- February 20 - Siege of Zaragoza grinds to a halt as Jose Palafox surrenders. Over 60,000 had been killed on both sides in 41 days of street fighting.
- February 25 - Spanish forces are defeated at the Battle of Valls in Catalonia by Marshal Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr.
- March 1 - Embargo Act repealed, Non-Intercourse Act replaces it.
- March 4 - James Madison succeeds Thomas Jefferson as the President of the United States.
- March 13 - Military coup ousts Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden - he is confined in the Gripsholm Castle.
- March 29 - At the Diet of Porvoo, Finland's four Estates pledge allegiance to Alexander I of Russia, commencing the secession of the Grand Duchy of Finland from Sweden. King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden abdicates after a coup d'état and is later exiled.
- March 29 - The First Battle of Porto ends in disaster as 18,000 Portuguese soldiers are drowned in a rout after defeat by the French under Marshal Soult and the Battle of Medellín results in massive Spanish casualties in Extremadura, when Marshal Victor's cavalry routs their army.
April - June
- April 9 - Tyroleans rise against French and Bavarian occupation, most notable militia lead by Andreas Hofer.
- April 14 - Napoleon I defeats Austrians in the Battle of Abensberg, Bavaria
- April 19 - Battle of Raszyn between armies of Austria (attackers) and Duchy of Warsaw (defenders) as a part of struggles of the Fifth Coalition (1809). The Austrian army was defeated.
- April 22 - Battle of Eckmühl - French troops under Napoleon I and Marshal Davout defeat the Austrians under Archduke Charles.
- May - Napoleon captures Vienna, is excommunicated, imprisons pope Pius VII.
- May 5 - Mary Kies is the first American woman to be awarded a patent.
- May 5 - The Swiss canton of Aargau denies Jews citizenship.
- May 17 - Napoleon I of France orders the annexation of the Papal States to the French empire. When he announces Pope's secular power has ended, pope excommunicates him.
- May 21 - Battle of Aspern-Essling: Austrian troops under Archduke Karl beat French under Napoleon in a hard fought battle.
- May 24 - Dartmoor Prison opens, first to house French prisoners of war.
- June 6 - Sweden promulgates a new Instrument of Government, which restores political power to the Riksdag of the Estates after authoritarian rule since 1772.
- June 7 - Shoja Shah of Afghanistan signs a treaty with the British. Only weeks later, he is succeeded by Mahmud Shah.
- June 10- Thomas Paine died
July - September
- July 5- 6 - The massive Battle of Wagram in which Napoleon defeats the Austrians.
- July 6 - French troops arrest Pope Pius VII and take him to Liguria
- July 10 - French Marshal Marmont engages in the inconclusive Battle of Znaim against the Austrians.
- July 28 - Sir Arthur Wellesley's British, Portuguese and Spanish army defeats a French force at the Battle of Talavera.
- July 30 - British invasion army lands in Walcheren.
- August 8 - 70 disciples of Gaon of Vilnius arrive in Palestine.
- August 10 - Ecuador declares independence from Spain.
- August 11 - Severe earthquakes strike the Azores and sinks the village of São Miguel.
- August 11 - A poorly-led Spanish army was defeated by King Joseph Bonaparte's French army at the Battle of Almonacid de Toledo.
- September 17 - Peace of Hamina - Peace between Russia and Sweden in the Finnish War. The territory to become the Grand Duchy of Finland is ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn.
- September 18 - A new theatre to hold the Royal Opera House opens in London to replace the first burnt down. in a fire in 1808. The price increases led to the Old Price Riots which lasted for 64 days.
October - December
- October 11 - Along the Natchez Trace in Tennessee, explorer Meriwether Lewis dies under mysterious circumstances at an inn called Grinder's Stand.
- October 14 - Treaty of Schoenbrunn cedes Illyrian provinces to France.
- November 19 - A Spanish army is ridden down and 20,000 are killed by French forces at the Battle of Ocana.
- November 25 - Benjamin Bathurst, a British diplomat, mysteriously disappeared (possibly murdered) in Perleberg.
- December 26 - British invasion force leaves Vlissingen
- December 30 - Wearing masks at balls is forbidden in Boston, Massachusetts.
- USS Constitution (Old Ironsides) is recommissioned as flagship of the North Atlantic Squadron.
- Louis Poinsot describes the two remaining Kepler-Poinsot polyhedra.
- Jean-Baptiste Lamarck publishes Philosophie Zoologique, outlining the concept of evolution.
- First running of the Two Thousand Guineas Stakes horse race in England.
- Miami University (Ohio) established by congressional order by George Washington.
- Nicolas François Appert (1750- 1841) develops a method to preserve food by means of canning.
- Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815) - Peninsular War/ Finnish War/Fifth Coalition.
- Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812.
|Ab urbe condita||2562|
|British Regnal year||49 Geo. 3 – 50 Geo. 3|
|Chinese calendar|| 戊辰年十一月十六日
— to —己巳年十一月廿五日
|- Vikram Samvat||1865–1866|
|- Shaka Samvat||1731–1732|
|- Kali Yuga||4910–4911|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||809–810|
|Japanese calendar|| Bunka 6
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||103 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2352|
January - June
- January 1 - Cao Bá Quát, Shi (d. 1855)
- January 4 - Louis Braille, French teacher, inventor of braille (d. 1852)
- January 15 - Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, French anarchist (d. 1864)
- January 19 - Edgar Allan Poe, American writer and poet (d. 1849)
- February 3 - Felix Mendelssohn, German composer (d. 1847)
- February 12
- February 15 - Cyrus McCormick, American inventor (d. 1884)
- February 23 - William Sprague, American minister and politician from Michigan (d. 1868)
- March 24 - Joseph Liouville, French mathematician (d. 1882)
- March 31 - Nikolai Gogol, Russian writer (d. 1852)
- April 15 - Hermann Gunter Grassmann, Prussian mathematician (d. 1877)
- June 4
- June 8 - Richard Wigginton Thompson, American politician (d. 1900)
- June 20 - Isaak August Dorner, German theologian (d. 1884)
July - December
- August 6 - Alfred Lord Tennyson, British poet (d. 1892)
- August 8 - Heinrich Abeken, German theologian (d. 1872)
- August 27 - Hannibal Hamlin, American politician (d. 1891)
- August 29 - Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., American physician and writer (d. 1894)
- October 22 - Volney E. Howard, American politician (d. 1889)
- September 27 - Raphael Semmes, Officer in the USN and the CSN (d.1877)
- November 27 - Fanny Kemble, British-born American actress and writer (d. 1893)
- December 24 - Kit Carson, American frontiersman (d. 1868)
- December 29 - William Ewart Gladstone, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1898)
January - June
- January 16 - John Moore, British general (killed in battle) (b. 1761)
- February 25 - John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore ( Lord Dunmore)
- March 7 - Johann Georg Albrechtsberger, Austrian composer (b. 1736)
- March 11 - Hannah Cowley, English dramatist and poet (b. 1743)
- March 25 - Anna Seward, English writer (b. 1747)
- March 27 - Joseph-Marie Vien, French painter (b. 1716)
- May 13 - Beilby Porteus, English bishop and abolitionist (b. 1731)
- May 17 - Leopold Auenbrugger, Austrian physician (b. 1722)
- May 31
July - September
- July 6 - Antoine Charles Louis Lasalle, French cavalry general (killed in battle) (b. 1775)
- June 4 - Nikolaj Abraham Abildgaard, Danish painter (b. 1743)
- June 8 - Thomas Paine, American revolutionary writer (b. 1737)
- August 8 - Ueda Akinari, Japanese author and scholar (b. 1734)
- August 18 - Matthew Boulton, English manufacturer and engineer (b. 1728)
- October 8 - James Elphinston, Scottish philologist (b. 1721)
- October 11 - Meriwether Lewis, American explorer (suicide) (b. 1774)
- October 30 - William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1738)
- November 9 - Paul Sandby, English cartographer and painter (b. 1725)