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|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1770s 1780s 1790s – 1800s – 1810s 1820s 1830s|
|Years:||1800 1801 1802 – 1803 – 1804 1805 1806|
1803 (MDCCCIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar).
Events of 1803
January - March
- January 5 - William Symington demonstrates his Charlotte Dundas, the "first practical steamboat".
- January 30 - Monroe and Livingston sail for Paris to discuss, and possibly buy, New Orleans: they end completing the Louisiana Purchase.
- February 21 - Edward Despard and six others are hanged and beheaded for plotting to assassinate king George III and to destroy the Bank of England.
- February 24 - The Supreme Court of the United States, in Marbury v. Madison, establishes the principle of judicial review.
- February 25 Reichsdeputationshauptschluss (formally the Hauptschluss der außerordentlichen Reichsdeputation, or "Principal Conclusion of the Extraordinary Imperial Delegation") was a resolution by the Reichstag ( German Mediatisation)
- March 1 - Ohio is admitted as the 17th U.S. state, retroactive from August 7, 1953.
- March 12 - Port Gibson, MS is chartered.
April - June
- April 30 - Louisiana Purchase made by the United States from France.
- May 18 - The United Kingdom redeclares war on France after France refused to withdraw from Dutch territory.
- May 19 - Master Malati, a Coptic Christian leader, is beheaded by Muslim mob in Cairo, Egypt.
July - September
- July 4 - The Louisiana Purchase is announced to the American people.
- July 5 - The convention of Artlenburg leads to the French occupation of Hanover (which had been ruled by the British king).
- July 23 - Robert Emmet's uprising in Ireland begins.
- July 26 - The wagonway between Wandsworth and Croydon is opened, being the first public railway line of the world.
- August 3 – British begin Second Anglo-Maratha War against Sindhia of Gwalior.
- September 20 - Irish rebel Robert Emmet is executed.
- September 23 - The Battle of Assaye in India – British-led troops defeat Maratha forces.
October - December
- October 20 - Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase Treaty, doubling the size of the United States.
- November 18- The Haitian army led by Jean-Jacques Dessalines defeated the army of Napoleon at the Battle of Vertières.
- November 30 - At the Cabildo building in New Orleans, Spanish representatives Governor Manuel de Salcedo and the Marqués de Casa Calvo, officially transfer Louisiana Territory to French representative Prefect Pierre Clément de Laussat (just 20 days later, France had transferred the same land to the United States as the Louisiana Purchase).
- Aargau, Graubünden, St. Gallen, Thurgau, the Ticino, Vaud become Swiss cantons.
- France - the Livre Tournois (Tours Pound) is replaced by the Franc.
- William Osgoode, Chief Justice of Lower Canada, rules that slavery is inconsistent with British Law.
- Orissa, In 1803 the British under the British East India Company occupied Orissa,India after the Second Anglo-Maratha War.
|Ab urbe condita||2556|
|British Regnal year||43 Geo. 3 – 44 Geo. 3|
|Chinese calendar|| 壬戌年十二月初八日
— to —癸亥年十一月十八日
|- Vikram Samvat||1859–1860|
|- Shaka Samvat||1725–1726|
|- Kali Yuga||4904–4905|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||803–804|
|Japanese calendar|| Kyōwa 2
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||109 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2346|
January - June
- February 2 - Albert Sidney Johnston, American Confederate general (d. 1862)
- February 15 - John Sutter, American pioneer (d. 1880)
- April 7 - Flora Tristan, French feminist (d. 1844)
- April 30
- May 12 - Justus von Liebig, German chemist (d. 1873)
- May 24 - Charles Lucien Bonaparte, French naturalist and ornithologist (d. 1857)
- May 25
- June 24 - George James Webb, English-born composer (d. 1887)
July - December
- July 24 - Adolphe Charles Adam, French composer (d. 1856)
- July 31 - John Ericsson, Swedish inventor and engineer (d. 1889)
- August 27 - Edward Beecher, American theologian (d. 1895)
- September 4 - Sarah Childress Polk, First Lady of the United States (d. 1891)
- September 27 - Samuel Francis du Pont, American admiral (d. 1865)
- September 28 - Prosper Mérimée, French writer (d. 1870)
- September 29 - Mercator Cooper, American sea captain (d. 1872)
- November 14 - Jacob Abbott, American writer (d. 1879)
- November 29 - Christian Doppler, Austrian mathematician (d. 1853)
- December 6 - Susanna Moodie, English writer (d. 1885)
- December 11 - Hector Berlioz, French composer (d. 1869)
January - June
- January 18 - Ippolit Bogdanovich, Russian poet (b. 1743)
- January 23 - Arthur Guinness, Irish brewer (b. 1725)
- February 9 - Jean François de Saint-Lambert, French poet (b. 1716)
- February 18 - Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim, German poet (b. 1719)
- February 20 - Marie Dumesnil, French actress (b. 1713)
- February 21 - Edward Marcus Despard, British revolutionary (b. 1751)
- March 14 - Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, German poet (b. 1724)
- April 2 - Sir James Montgomery, 1st Baronet, Scottish politician and judge (b. 1721)
- April 7 - Toussaint L'Ouverture, Haitian revolutionary (b. 1743)
- June 24 - Matthew Thornton, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (b. 1714)
July - December
- August 24 - Napper Tandy, Irish republican
- September 5 - Pierre Choderlos de Laclos, French general and author (b. 1741)
- September 15 - Gian Francesco Albani, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1719)
- October 2 - Samuel Adams, American revolutionary leader (b. 1722)
- October 26 - Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford, English politician (b. 1721)
- December 18 - Johann Gottfried Herder, German philosopher and writer (b. 1744)
- December 30 - Francis Lewis, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (b. 1713)
- Jacques-Donatien Le Ray, French "Father of the American Revolution" (b. 1726)