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|| 2nd millennium
|| 1100s 1110s 1120s 1130s 1140s
1150s 1160s 1170s 1180s 1190s
|| Births – Deaths
Establishments – Disestablishments
Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 12th century.
A Black and White Photo of the 12th century Cuenca Cathedral (built from 1182 to 1270) in Cuenca, Spain
As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century is the period from 1101 to 1200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages and is sometimes called the Age of the Cistercians. In Song Dynasty China an invasion by Jurchens causes a political schism of north and south. The Khmer Empire of Cambodia flourished during this century, while the Fatimids of Egypt were overtaken by the Ayyubid dynasty.
The temple complex of Angkor Wat
, built during the reign of Suryavarman II in Cambodia of the Khmer Era.
- China is under the Northern Song Dynasty. Early in the century, Zhang Zeduan paints Along the River During the Qingming Festival. It will later end up in the Palace Museum, Beijing.
- In southeast Asia, there is conflict between the Khmer Empire and the Champa. Angkor Wat is built under the Hindu king Suryavarman II. By the end of the century the Buddhist Jayavarman VII becomes the ruler.
- Japan is in its Heian period. The Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga is made and attributed to Toba Sōjō. It ends up at the Kōzan-ji, Kyoto.
- In Oceania, the Tuʻi Tonga Empire expands to a much greater area.
- Europe undergoes the Renaissance of the 12th century. The blast furnace for the smelting of cast iron is imported from China, appearing around Lapphyttan, Sweden, as early as 1150.
- Alexander Neckam is the first European to document the mariner's compass, first documented by Shen Kuo during the previous century.
- Christian humanism becomes a self-conscious philosophical tendency in Europe. Christianity is also introduced to Estonia, Finland, and Karelia.
- The first medieval universities are founded. Pierre Abelard teaches.
- Middle English begins to develop, and literacy begins to spread outside the Church throughout Europe. In addition, churchmen are increasingly willing to take on secular roles. By the end of the century, at least a third of England's bishops also act as royal judges in secular matters.
- The Ars antiqua period in the history of the classical music of Western Europe begins.
- The earliest recorded miracle play is performed in Dunstable, England
- Gothic architecture and trouvère music begin in France.
- During the middle of the century, the Cappella Palatina is built in Palermo, Sicily, and the Madrid Skylitzes manuscript illustrates the Synopsis of Histories by John Skylitzes.
- Fire and plague insurance first become available in Iceland, and the first documented outbreaks of influenza there happens.
- The medieval state of Serbia state is formed by Stefan Nemanja and then continued by the Nemanjić dynasty. By the end of the century, both the Capetian Dynasty and the House of Anjou are relying primarily on mercenaries in their militaries. Paid soldiers are available year-round, unlike knights who expected certain periods off to maintain their manor lifestyles.
- In India, Hoysala architecture reaches a peak.
- In the Middle East, the icon of Theotokos of Vladimir is painted probably in Constantinople. Everything but the faces will later be retouched, and the icon will go to the Tretyakov Gallery of Moscow.
- The Georgian poet Shota Rustaveli composes his epic poem The Knight in the Panther's Skin.
- Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi founds his "school of illumination".
- In North Africa, the kasbah of Marrakesh is built, including the city gate Bab Agnaou and the Koutoubia mosque.
- In sub-Saharan Africa, Kente cloth is first woven.
Inventions, discoveries and introductions by year
- List of 12th century inventions
The Liuhe Pagoda of Hangzhou, China, 1165
- 1104—The Venice Arsenal of Venice, Italy, is founded. It employed some 16000 people for the mass production of sailing ships in large assembly lines, hundreds of years before the Industrial Revolution.
- 1106—Finished building of Gelati.
- 1107—The Chinese engineer Wu Deren combines the mechanical compass vehicle of the south-pointing chariot with the distance-measuring odometer device.
- 1111—The Chinese Donglin Academy is founded.
- 1165—The Liuhe Pagoda of Hangzhou, China, is built.
- 1170—The Christian notion of Purgatory is born.
- 1185—First record of windmills.
Political events by year
- 1100: On August 5, Henry I is crowned King of England.
- 1100: On December 25, Baldwin of Boulogne is crowned as the first King of Jerusalem in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem.
- 1101: In July, the Treaty of Alton is signed between Henry I of England and his older brother Robert, Duke of Normandy in which Robert agrees to recognize Henry as king of England in exchange for a yearly stipend and other concessions. The agreement temporarily ended a crisis in the succession of the Anglo-Norman kings.
- 1101– 1103: David the Builder takes over Kakheti and Hereti.
- 1102: King Coloman unites Hungary and Croatia under the Hungarian Crown.
- 1103- 1104: A church council is convened by King David the Builder in Urbnisi to reorganize the Georgian Orthodox Church.
- 1104: In the Battle of Ertcukhi, King David the Builder defeats an army of Seljuks.
- 1107– 1111: Sigurd I of Norway becomes the first king in Europe to embark on a crusade to the Holy Land. He fought in Lisbon, on various Mediterranean isles, and helped the King of Jerusalem to take Sidon from the Muslims.
- 1108: By the Treaty of Devol, signed in September, Bohemond I of Antioch has to submit to the Byzantine Empire, becoming the vassal of Alexius I.
- 1109: On June 10, Bertrand of Toulouse captures the County of Tripoli.
- 1109: In the Battle of Nakło, Boleslaus III Wrymouth defeats the Pomeranians and re-establishes Polish access to the sea.
- 1109: On August 24, in the Battle of Hundsfeld, Boleslaus III Wrymouth defeats Emperor Henry V and stops German expansion eastward.
- 1111: On April 14, during Henry V's first expedition to Rome, he is crowned Holy Roman Emperor.
- 1113: Paramavishnulok is crowned as King Suryavarman II in Cambodia. He expanded the Khmer Empire and built the constructions of Angkor Wat during the first half of the century. He established diplomatic relations with China.
- 1115: The Georgian army occupies Rustavi in the war to free Georgia from the Muslims.
- 1116: The Byzantine army defeats the Turks at Philomelion.
- c. 1119: Foundation of the Knights Templar.
- 1120: On January 16, the Council of Nablus, a council of ecclesiastic and secular lords in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, establishes the first written laws for the kingdom.
- 1120: On November 25, William Adelin, the only legitimate son of King Henry I of England, drowns in the White Ship Disaster, leading to a succession crisis which would bring down the Norman monarchy of England.
- 1121: On August 12, in the Battle of Didgori, the greatest military victory of Georgia, King David the Builder with 40,000 Georgians, 15,000 Kipchak auxiliaries, 500 Alan mercenaries and 300 French Crusaders defeats a Seljuk-led Muslim coalition army of 400,000.
- 1121: On December 25, St. Norbert and 29 companions made their solemn vows, the beginning of the Premonstratensian Order.
- 1122: The Battle of Beroia results in the disappearance of the Pechenegs as an independent force.
- 1122: On September 23, the Concordat of Worms (Pactum Calixtinum) was drawn up between Emperor Henry V and Pope Calixtus II bringing an end to the first phase of the power struggle between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire.
- 1122: After a 400-year supremacy of Arabs, King David the Builder captures Tbilisi and declares it the capital city of Georgia.
- 1123: The Jurchen dynasty forces Koryo to recognize their suzerainty.
- 1124: In April or May, David I is crowned King of the Scots.
- 1125: On June 11, in the Battle of Azaz, the Crusader states, led by King Baldwin II of Jerusalem, defeat the Seljuk Turks.
- 1125: Lothair of Supplinburg, duke of Saxony, is elected Holy Roman Emperor instead of the nearest heir, Frederick of Swabia, beginning the great struggle of Guelf and Ghibelline.
- 1127: The Northern Song dynasty loses power over northern China to the Jurchens of Manchuria.
- 1128: On June 24, Portugal gains independence from the Kingdom of León at the Battle of São Mamede; (recognised by León in 1143).
- 1130– 1180: 50-year drought in the American Southwest.
- 1130– 1138: Papal schism, Pope Innocent II vs. Antipope Anacletus II.
- 1130: On March 26, Sigurd I of Norway dies. A golden era of 95 years comes to an end for Norway as civil wars between the members of Harald Fairhair's family line rage for the remainder of the century.
- 1130: On Christmas Day, Roger II is crowned King of Sicily, the royal title being given to him by Antipope Anacletus II.
- 1132: The Southern Song Dynasty establishes China's first permanent standing navy, although China had a long naval history prior. The main admiral's office was stationed at the port of Dinghai.
- 1132– 1183: the Chinese navy increases from a mere 3,000 marine soldiers to 52,000 marine soldiers stationed in 20 different squadrons. During this time, hundreds of treadmill-operated paddle wheel craft are assembled for the navy, in order to combat the Jurchen's Jin Dynasty in the north.
- 1135– 1154: The Anarchy is a period of civil war in England.
- 1136: Suger begins rebuilding the abbey church at St Denis north of Paris, which is regarded as the first major Gothic building.
- 1137: On July 22, the future King Louis VII of France marries Eleanor, the Duchess of Aquitaine.
- 1138: On October 11, the 1138 Aleppo earthquake devastates much of northern Syria.
- 1139: in April, the Second Lateran Council ends the papal schism.
- 1139: On July 5, in the Treaty of Mignano, Pope Innocent II confirms Roger II as King of Sicily, Duke of Apulia, and Prince of Capua and invests him with his titles.
- 1139: On July 26, the Portuguese defeat the Almoravids led by Ali ibn Yusuf in the Battle of Ourique; Prince Afonso Henriques is acclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers.
- 1140– 1150: Collapse of the Ancestral Puebloan culture at Chaco Canyon
- 1141 - The Treaty of Shaoxing ends the conflicts between the Jin Dynasty and Southern Song Dynasty, legally establishing the boundaries of the two countries and forcing the Song Dynasty to renounce all claims to its former territories north of the Huai River. The treaty reduces the Southern Song into a quasi-tributary state of the Jurchen Jin Dynasty.
- 1143: Afonso Henriques is proclaimed King of Portugal by the cortes.
- 1143 - The Treaty of Zamora recognizes Portuguese independence from the Kingdom of León. Portugal also recognizes the suzerainty of the pope.
- 1144: On December 24, Edessa falls to the Atabeg Zengi.
- 1145– 1148: The Second Crusade is launched in response to the fall of the County of Edessa.
- 1147: On October 25, the four-month long Siege of Lisbon successfully brings the city under definitive Portuguese control, expelling the Moorish overlords.
- 1147: A new Berber dynasty, the Almohads, led by Emir Abd al-Mu'min, takes North Africa from the Almoravides and soon invades the Iberian Peninsula. The Almohads began as a religious movement to rid Islam of impurities.
- 1147: The Wendish Crusade against the Polabian Slavs (or " Wends") in what is now northern and eastern Germany.
- 1150: Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona marries Petronilla, the Queen of Aragon.
- 1151 - The Treaty of Tudilén (or Treaty of Tudején) is signed by Alfonso VII of León and Raymond Berengar IV, Count of Barcelona, recognising the Aragonese conquests south of the Júcar and the right to expand in and annex the Kingdom of Murcia.
- 1153 - The Treaty of Wallingford (Treaty of Winchester, Treaty of Westminster), effectively ends the civil war caused by a dispute between Empress Matilda and her cousin King Stephen of England over the English crown, in which Stephen recognises Matilda's son Henry of Anjou as his heir.
- 1153 - The First Treaty of Constance is signed between Emperor Frederick I and Pope Eugene III, by the terms of which, the emperor is to prevent any action by Manuel I Comnenus to reestablish the Byzantine Empire on Italian soil and to assist the pope against his enemies in revolt in Rome.
- 1154: the Moroccan-born Muslim geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi publishes his Geography.
- 1154: On December 19, Henry II is crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey.
- 1155: Pope Adrian IV grants overlordship of Ireland to Henry II of England in the bull Laudabiliter.
- 1156 – On June 18, the Treaty of Benevento is entered into by Pope Adrian IV and the Norman Kingdom of Sicily. After years of turbulent relations, the popes finally settled down to a peace with the Hauteville kings. The kingship of William I is recognised over all Sicily, Apulia, Calabria, and Campania, as well as Capua. The tribute to the pope of 600 schifati agreed upon by Roger II in 1139 at Mignano was affirmed and another 400 schifati was added for the new lands.
- 1158 - The Treaty of Sahagún ends a state of war between Castile and León.
- 1161: the Song Dynasty Chinese navy, employing gunpowder bombs launched from trebuchets, defeats the enormous Jin Dynasty navy in the East China Sea in the Battle of Tangdao and on the Yangtze River in the Battle of Caishi.
- 1161: Kilij Arslan II, Sultan of Rum, makes peace with the Byzantine Empire, recognizing the emperor's primacy.
- 1161: In the siege of Ani, Georgian troops take over control of city, only to have it sold for the second time to the Shaddadids, a Kurdish dynasty.
- 1162: Genghis Khan, the founder of the Mongol Empire, is born as Temüjin.
- 1163: The Norwegian Law of Succession takes effect.
- 1168: King Valdemar I of Denmark conquers Arkona on the Island of Rügen, the strongest pagan fortress and temple in northern Europe.
- 1169: On May 1, the Norman invasion of Ireland begins. Richard fitzGilbert de Clare ('Strongbow') makes an alliance with the exiled Irish chief, Dermot MacMurrough, to help him recover his kingdom of Leinster.
- 1170 - The Treaty of Sahagún is signed by Alfonso VIII of Castile and Alfonso II of Aragon. Based on the terms of the accord, Alfonso VIII agrees to give Alfonso II three hostages in order to be used as tribute payments owed by Ibn Mardanīš of Valencia and Murcia.
- 1170: On December 29, Thomas Becket is murdered.
- 1171: Saladin deposes the last Fatimid Caliph Al-'Āḍid, initiating the Ayyubid dynasty.
- 1171: On November 11, Henry II of England lands in Ireland to assert his claim as Lord of Ireland.
- 1174: On July 12, William I of Scotland is captured by the English in the Battle of Alnwick. He accepts the feudal lordship of the English crown and does ceremonial allegiance at York.
- 1175: Hōnen Shōnin (Genkū) founds the Jōdo shū (Pure Land) sect of Buddhism.
- 1175 - The Treaty of Windsor is signed by King Henry II of England and the High King of Ireland, Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair.
- 1176: On May 29, Frederick Barbarossa's forces were defeated in the Battle of Legnano by the Lombard League which resulted in the emperor's acknowledgement of the pope's sovereignty over the Papal States and Alexander acknowledging the emperor's overlordship of the imperial Church.
- 1176: On September 17, The Battle of Myriokephalon (Myriocephalum; Turkish: Miryakefalon Savaşı) is fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Turks in Phrygia. It was a serious reversal for the Byzantine forces and was to be the final, unsuccessful, effort by the Byzantines to recover the interior of Anatolia from the Seljuk Turks.
- 1177 - The Treaty or Peace of Venice is signed by the Papacy and its allies and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor. The Norman Kingdom of Sicily also takes part in negotiations and the treaty thereby determines the political course of all Italy for the next several years.
- 1178: Chinese writer Zhou Qufei, a Guangzhou customs officer, writes of an island far west in the Indian Ocean (possibly Madagascar), from where people with skin "as black as lacquer" and with frizzy hair were captured and purchased as slaves by Arab merchants.
- 1179 - The Treaty of Cazola (Cazorla) is signed by Alfonso II of Aragon and Alfonso VIII of Castile, dividing Andalusia into separate zones of conquest for the two kingdoms, so that the work of the Reconquista would not be stymied by internecine feuding.
- 1180– 1185: the Genpei War in Japan.
- 1182: revolt of the people of Constantinople against the Latins, whom they massacre, proclaiming Andronicus I Comnenus co-emperor.
- 1183: On January 25, the final Peace of Constance between Frederick Barbarossa, the pope, and the Lombard towns is signed, confirming the Peace of Venice of 1177.
- 1183: On September 24, Andronicus I Comnenus has his nephew Alexius II Comnenus strangled.
- 1184: On March 24, Queen Tamar, King of Georgia, accedes to the throne as sole ruler after reigning with her father, George III, for six years.
- 1185: Andronicus I Comnenus is deposed and, on September 12, executed as a result of the Norman massacre of the Greeks of Thessalonika.
- 1185: The cathedral school (Katedralskolan) in Lund, Sweden, is founded. The school is the oldest in northern Europe, and one of the oldest in Europe.
- 1185: Beginning in this year the Kamakura shogunate deprives the emperor of Japan of political power.
Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 12th century
- 1186: On January 27, the future Emperor Henry VI marries Constance of Sicily, the heiress to the Sicilian throne.
- 1187: On July 4, in the Battle of Hattin, Saladin defeats the king of Jerusalem.
- 1187: In August, the Swedish royal and commercial centre Sigtuna is attacked by Baltic-Finnish raiders from Couronia and Estonia.
- 1189: On September 3, Richard is crowned King of England in Westminster.
- 1189– 1192: The Third Crusade is an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin.
- 1190: On June 10, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa drowns in the River Salef, leaving the Crusader army under the command of the rivals Philip II of France and Richard I of England, which ultimately led to the dissolution of the army.
- 1191: On September 7, Saladin is defeated by Richard I of England at the Battle of Arsuf.
- 1192: In April, Conrad of Montferrat is elected King of Jerusalem as Conrad I, then assassinated a few days later (April 28), before the coronation, by two Hashshashin.
- 1192: In the Battle of Jaffa, King Richard the Lionheart defeats Saladin.
- 1192 – In June, the Treaty of Ramla is signed by Saladin and Richard the Lionheart. Under the terms of the agreement, Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control. However, the city would be open to Christian pilgrimages. The Latin Kingdom is reduced to a geopolitical coastal strip that extended from Tyre to Jaffa.
- 1192: Minamoto Yoritomo is appointed Sei-i Taishōgun, "barbarian-subduing great general, shōgun for short, the first military dictator to bear this title.
- 1193: Nalanda, the great Indian Buddhist educational centre, is destroyed.
- 1193: Prithvi raj Chauhan, the first Muslim empire is established in India by Mohammad Ghori by defeating Prithviraj Chauhan
- 1193: the first known merchant guild.
- 1195: On June 16, the struggle of Shamqori. Georgian forces annihilate the army of Abu Baqar.
- 1198: The brethren of the Crusader hospital in Acre are raised to a military order of knights, the Teutonic Knights, formally known as the Order of the Knights of the Hospital of St. Mary of the Teutons in Jerusalem.
- 1199: Pope Innocent III writes to Kaloyan, inviting him to unite the Bulgarian Church with the Roman Catholic Church.
A 15th century depiction of Saladin
Illumination from the Liber Scivias
showing Hildegard von Bingen receiving a vision and dictating to her scribe and secretary
- Adrian IV, pope
- Aelred, Saint, English monk and spiritual writer
- Afonso Henriques, first king of Portugal
- Alan IV, Duke of Brittany
- Albert of Jerusalem, Saint, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem
- Albert of Louvain, Saint, Bishop of Liège
- Allama Prabhu, Indian Mystic and an important Vachana Poet.
- Alexander I of Scotland, king
- Alexius I Comnenus, emperor
- Alexius II Comnenus, emperor
- Alexius III Angelus, emperor
- Alfonso II of Aragon, king
- Alfonso VI of Castile, king
- Alfonso VII of Castile, king
- Alfonso VIII of Castile, king
- Amadeus of Lausanne, Blessed, Bishop of Lausanne
- Andrei I Bogolyubsky, Prince of Suzdal
- Andronicus I Comnenus, emperor
- Anselm, Saint, Abbot of Bec and Archbishop of Canterbury
- Anthelm, Saint, Abbot of the Grand Chartreuse
- Artemis Felicaan, mysticist and mathematician found guilty of treason during Christian Prosecution in Constantinople.
- Arthur I, Duke of Brittany
- Averroes Ibn Rushd, Spanish Islamic polymath
- Baldwin IV of Jerusalem, king
- Béla II of Hungary
- Béla III of Hungary
- Bernard, Saint, Abbot of Clairvaux, preacher and reformer
- Bertha, Duchess of Brittany
- Berthold, Saint, found of the Carmelite Order
- Bhaskara II, Indian mathematician and astronomer
- Bohemund I of Antioch, prince
- Boleslaus III Wrymouth, king of Poland
- Boleslav IV the Curly, high duke of Poland
- Bruno of Segni, Saint, bishop
- Calixtus II, pope
- Canute V of Denmark, king
- Canute VI of Denmark, king
- Chakhrukhadze, Georgian poet
- Christina of Markyate, Prioress of St. Albans Abbey
- Coloman I, King of Hungary
- Conan IV, Duke of Brittany, the Younger
- Conrad I of Montferrat, King elect of Jerusalem
- Constance, Duchess of Brittany
- David I of Scotland, king
- David the Builder, King of Georgia
- David V of Georgia
- David Soslani, husband of Queen Tamar
- Demetre I, king of Georgia
- Dominic de Guzmán, Saint, founder of the Order of Preachers
- Edgar of Scotland, king
- Edmund of Abingdon, Saint, theologian, Archbishop of Canterbury
- Eleanor of Aquitaine, queen consort of France and later of the Kingdom of England
- Emeric I of Hungary, king
- Engelbert II of Berg, Saint, Archbishop of Cologne
- Eric I of Denmark, king
- Eric II of Denmark, king
- Eric III of Denmark, king
- Eric IX of Sweden, Saint, king
- Erik Gnupsson, Bishop of Greenland
- Eugene III, Blessed, pope
- Eustathios of Thessalonike, Saint, archbishop of Thessaloniki and writer
- Eystein I of Norway, king
- Eystein II of Norway, king
- Eysteinn Erlendsson, Saint, Bishop of Nidaros
- Felix of Valois, Saint, co-founder of the Order of the Holy Trinity for the Redemption of Captives
- Francis of Assisi, Saint, founder of the Order of Friars Minor
- Frederick Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor
- Galdino della Sala, Saint, Archbishop of Milan
- Gelasius II, pope
- Genghis Khan, Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
- Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany
- Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy
- George III, king of Georgia
- Geza II, king of Hungary
- Gilbert of Sempringham, Saint, founder of the Gilbertines.
- Haakon II of Norway the Broad-shouldered, king
- Harald IV of Norway, king
- Henry (Bishop of Uppsala), Saint
- Henry, Count of Portugal
- Henry I of England, king and Duke of Normandy
- Henry II of England, king and Duke of Normandy
- Henry IV of Germany, king and emperor
- Henry V of Germany, king and emperor
- Henry VI of Germany, king and emperor
- Hildegard of Bingen, Saint, polymath and first Western musical composer known by name
- Hōnen Shōnin (Genkū), religious founder
- Honorius II, pope
- Hugh II, Duke of Burgundy
- Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy
- Hugh of Grenoble, Saint, bishop
- Hugh of Lincoln, Saint, bishop
- Huizong, Emperor of China
- Humbert III, Count of Savoy, Blessed
- Ida of Boulogne, Saint, countess
- Inge I of Norway Hunchback, king
- Innocent II, pope
- Innocent III, pope
- Isaac II Angelus, emperor
- Ivan Asen I of Bulgaria, king
- Ivo of Chartres, Saint, bishop
- Jayavarman VII, Khmer emperor
- John II Comnenos, emperor
- John of England, king and Duke of Normandy
- John of Matha, Saint, co-founder of the Order of the Holy Trinity for the Redemption of Captives
- Kaloyan of Bulgaria, king
- Lawrence O'Toole, Saint, Archbishop of Dublin
- Leopold III, Margrave of Austria, Saint
- Lin Tinggui, Chinese painter of Buddhist themes
- Louis VI of France, king
- Louis VII of France, king
- Lucius II, pope
- Magnus Erlendsson, Earl of Orkney, Saint
- Magnus III of Norway, king
- Magnus IV of Norway the Blind, king
- Magnus V of Norway, king
- Maimonides, Jewish philosopher
- Malachy O'More, Saint, Archbishop of Armagh
- Malcolm IV of Scotland, king
- Manuel I Comnenus, emperor
- Matilda of Tuscany, countess
- Mechtildis, Saint, abbess
- Minamoto no Yoritomo, shōgun of Japan, founder of the Kamakura shogunate
- Muhammad of Ghor, Afghan ruler
- Nerses of Lambron, Saint, Archbishop of Tarsus, theologian
- Niels of Denmark, king
- Norbert of Xanten, Saint, founder of the Premonstratensian Order of canons regular, Archbishop of Magdeburg
- Odo I, Duke of Burgundy
- Odo II, Duke of Burgundy
- Odo III, Duke of Burgundy
- Odo of Cambrai, Saint, bishop, theologian
- Olaf Magnusson of Norway, king
- Olegarius, Saint, Archbishop of Tarragona
- Omar Khayyám, Persian poet and astronomer
- Opizars, Beshqen and Beqa, celebrated Georgian gold-smiths.
- Otto of Bamberg, Saint, bishop, chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire
- Paschal II, pope
- Peter Abelard, philosopher
- Peter Nolasco, Saint, co-founder of the Order of Our Lady of Ransom
- Peter, Bishop of Poitiers, Saint
- Peter IV of Bulgaria, king
- Philip I of France, king
- Philip II of France, Augustus, king
- Prithviraj Chauhan, king of Ajmer in India
- Raymond of Fitero, Saint, founder of the Order of Calatrava
- Raymond of Peñafort, Saint, canon lawyer
- Richard I of England, king and Duke of Normandy
- Richard of Chichester, Saint, bishop
- Richard of St. Victor, theologian
- Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy
- Robert de Bethune, Bishop of Hereford
- Roger II of Sicily, king
- Saladin, ruler of Egypt and Syria
- Sancho I of Portugal, king
- Sava, Saint, organizer and liberator of the Serbian Orthodox Church
- Shao Yong, Chinese poet, historian, and philosopher
- Sigurd I of Norway, king
- Sigurd II of Norway, king
- Stefan Nemanja, ruler of Serbia
- Stefan Nemanjić, king of Serbia
- Stephen II, king of Hungary
- Stephen Harding, Saint, abbot, co-founder of the Cistercian Order
- Stephen of England, king and Duke of Normandy
- Suger, Abbot of St.-Denis
- Suryavarman II, Khmer emperor
- Sverker I of Sweden, king
- Sverre of Norway, king
- Sweyn III of Denmark
- Tamar of Georgia, queen
- Thomas Becket, Saint, Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of England
- Valdemar I of Denmark, the Great, king
- Vladimir II Monomakh, prince of Kiev
- Vladislav I Herman of Poland, king
- William I of Scotland, the Lion, king
- William I of Sicily, king
- William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, knight and statesman
- William of Malmesbury, English historian
- Yue Fei, Chinese general
- Yusuf ibn Tashfin, Almoravid ruler of North Africa and Spain
- Zhang Zeduan, Chinese painter
- Zhou Jichang, Chinese painter
- Zhu Xi, Neo-Confucian Chinese philosopher
- Zhu Yu, Chinese maritime author
In popular culture
- A scene in the 2008 Tamil film Dasavathaaram shows the fictitious events of religious tensions between the Shaivists and the Vaishnavites in the Chola Kingdom (present-day Tamil Nadu, India).
Decades and years
Decades and years
10th century←11th century← ↔ →13th century→14th century
Centuries and millennia