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File:Howland island nasa.jpg


Deutsch: NASA-Astronautenbild der Howlandsinsel im Pazifischen Ozean
English: NASA astronaut image of Howland Island in the Pacific Ocean

International Space Station InsigniaISS Crew Earth Observations: ISS010-E-9287International Space Station Insignia
Mission ISS010 ( Expedition 10)
Roll E
Frame 9287
Country or Geographic Name HOWLAND ISLAND
Centre Point Latitude 0.8° N
Centre Point Longitude -176.6° E
Camera Tilt 41°
Camera Focal Length 800 mm
Camera Kodak DCS760C Electronic Still Camera
Film 3060 x 2036 pixel CCD, RGBG array.
Percentage of Cloud Cover 0-10%
Nadir What is Nadir?
Date 2004-12-03
Time 18:55:48
Nadir Point Latitude 2.7° N
Nadir Point Longitude -174.6° E
Nadir to Photo Centre Direction Southwest
Sun Azimuth 115°
Spacecraft Altitude 192 nautical miles (356 km)
Sun Elevation Angle 19°
Orbit Number 2496
Original image caption
Howland Island is a United States possession located in the north Pacific between Australia and the Hawaiian Islands. Prior to 1890, organic nitrate (guano) was mined from the island by both the United States and the British. This tiny island (1.6 km2) is currently part of the U.S. National Wildlife Refuge system, and provides nesting areas and forage for a variety of birds and marine wildlife.

The island is composed of coral fragments and is surrounded by an active fringing reef. White breakers encircling the island indicate the position of the reef. Astronauts aboard the International Space Station photograph numerous reefs around the world as part of a global mapping and monitoring program. High-resolution images such as this one are used to update geographic maps of reefs and islands, assess the health of reef ecosystems, and calculate bathymetry of the surrounding ocean bottom.

Date 4 April 2007
Author NASA
( Reusing this file)

Conditions of Use of Astronaut Photographs

Shuttle.svg This image or video was catalogued by Johnson Space Centre of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under Photo ID: ISS010-E-9287.
This tag does not indicate the copyright status of the attached work. A normal copyright tag is still required. See Commons:Licensing for more information.


Public domain This file is in the public domain because it was created by the Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, of the NASA Johnson Space Centre. NASA copyright policy states that "NASA material is not protected by copyright unless noted". ( NASA copyright policy page or Conditions of Use of Astronaut Photographs).

Photo source: ISS010-E-9287.

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