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Soviet poster circa 1925. Translation of text at top: "Miscarriages induced by either trained or self-taught midwives not only maim the woman, they also often lead to death." Caption for upper-left picture: "Visiting the self-taught midwife" Upper-right picture: "Consequences of miscarriage" Lower picture: "Death from miscarriage" Text at lower left: "Any miscarriage is harmful." Text at lower right: "Any trained or self-taught midwife who induces a miscarriage is committing a crime."

Image courtesy of the National Library of Medicine.


Public domain This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired and its author is anonymous.

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Note: In Germany and possibly other countries, certain anonymous works published before July 1, 1995 are copyrighted until 70 years after the death of the author. See Aktuelle Rechtslage in Deutschland, last paragraph. If the author identified her/himself publicly, do not use this template. If the work is anonymous or pseudonymous (e.g., published only under a corporate or organization's name), use this template for images published more than 70 years ago.

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Public domain This work is in the public domain in Russia according to article 6 of Law No. 231-FZ of the Russian Federation of December 18, 2006; the Implementation Act for Book IV of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation.


  1. The author of this work died before January 1, 1943 and did not work during the Great Patriotic War or did not participate in it.
  2. This work was originally published anonymously or under a pseudonym before January 1, 1943 and the name of the author did not become known during 50 years after publication.
  3. Corporate body copyright has expired since the last 70 years from the publication of the work, and if the work was not published, - from the date of its creation. This applied to
    a) non-amateur cinema or television film or television broadcast (or shots of them, including separate frames), which was first shown more than 70 years ago (before January 1, 1943).
    b) radio records (or their fragments), which was first broadcasted more than 70 years ago (before January 1, 1943).
  4. The copyright to this product discontinued, as was part of the escheat of property (Art. 1151 of Civil Code). The product must also be in the public domain in the United States.

Use {{ PD-old-70}} instead of this tag:

  • if author of this work died before June 22, 1941, or
  • if this work was originally published anonymously or under the pseudonym before January 1, 1943 and the name of the author did not become known during 70 years after publication.

Attention! If the author of this work was subjected to repression and rehabilitated posthumously, countdown of copyright protection began not from the death date, but from the rehabilitation date. If the work was first published posthumously, the copyright term is counted from the date of that first publication, unless the author was later rehabilitated, in which case it runs again from that later rehabilitation date.

  • Full Text of Law No. 231-FZ (in Russian)
  • Full Text of Fourth Part of Civil Code (in Russian)

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